万维百科

宗教隔离

宗教隔离是指人们根据自己的宗教进行隔离的一种社会现象,也指法律规定或隐含的隔离制度。

穆斯林与非穆斯林的隔离

伊斯兰国家

伊朗

伊朗以伊斯兰教为国教,由什叶派宗教学者等级领导神权政治。伊朗把非穆斯林的一神论者身份定为齐米(Dhimmi,“顺民”),美国国务院确认有“基于宗教信仰的监禁、骚扰、恐吓和歧视”事件在伊朗发生。

伊朗宪法中,巴哈伊教不属于当局承认的少数宗教群体,在伊朗被认为是叛教者,因为该教相信较穆罕默德晚出生的先知巴哈欧拉,违背伊斯兰教中关于穆罕默德是最后一位被派往人类的使者的教义。有信奉巴哈伊教的学生因宗教被大学开除,而巴哈伊教教育工作者必须放弃宗教信仰以获得伊朗的大学教席。

沙特阿拉伯

在通往麦加的高速公路上的路标向穆斯林和非穆斯林指示不同方向,宗教警察在主要道路的侧路驻守,防止非穆斯林进入麦加。

2004年3月1日之前,沙特阿拉伯政府官方网站明文规定犹太人被禁止进入该国。法律只容许穆斯林进入位于该国的圣城麦加麦地那,非穆斯林不得进入或穿越麦加,试图进入可能会受惩处如罚款,踏足麦加更可能会被驱逐出境。由于这个规定所限,在这些城市提供服务的外国公司必须雇用穆斯林员工或让非穆斯林员工在城外工作。

20世纪80年代,麦加和麦地那的电话服务由加拿大贝尔电话公司(Bell Canada)提供,该公司在城外设立非穆斯林员工的办公室,而在1970年代后期因招聘涉及宗教和性别歧视而被告上加拿大人权仲裁庭(Canadian Human Rights Tribunal)。

非伊斯兰教国家

中国

一些中国穆斯林要求与非穆斯林在商店不同的通道排队,在学校不同的食堂进餐,属于宗教隔离行为。

其他

英国

伦敦的宗教隔离较种族隔离常见,其中有四分一居民自愿选择在宗教隔离的社区居住。

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那

《卫报》记者认为波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那是“一个依赖、被扼杀和种族隔离的国度”,并形容联合国驻波黑国际高级代表以“联合国认可的自由帝国主义”控制波斯尼亚,造成“依赖、扼杀民间社会,当地因战乱受伤和失业的居民受外国领薪人员管治,因而形成非常明显的金融隔离制度”。

参考文献

  1. ^ Knox, H. M. Religious Segregation in the Schools of Northern Ireland. British Journal of Educational Studies. 1973年10月. "...[S]egregated schooling, although in theory open to all, is in practice availed of by virtually only one denomination...." Also refers to pre-Partition religious schools which retained their exclusively Catholic demographics after Partition.
  2. ^ Norgren, Jill; Nanda, Serena. American Cultural Pluralism and Law. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2006: 132. ISBN 0275986926. , quoting U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy in Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet: "...[D]rawing school district lines along the religious lines of the village impermissibly involved the state in accomplishing the religious segregation."
  3. ^ Akkaro, Anta. Pakistan's Christians Demand End to 'Religious Apartheid' at Polls. Christianity Today. 2000-09-01 [2008-08-18]. (原始内容存档于2008-09-15).
  4. ^ Religion In Schools. The Big Debate. 0:09:29 and 0:11:52 记录于. 2008-01-29. (原始内容存档于2008-09-21)., in which Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain says (at 0:09:29): "If you have separate Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Sikh, Hindu schools, essentially you’re segregating children, you’re separating children" and (at 0:11:52): "It’s a religious apartheid society we’re creating."
  5. ^ International Federation for Human Rights. Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran (PDF). fdih.org. 2003-08-01 [2006-10-20]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2006-10-31).
  6. ^ U.S. Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Iran. U.S. Department of State. 2005-09-15 [2006-11-08]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-19).
  7. ^ Discrimination against religious minorities in IRAN (PDF). FIDH: 6. [2008-08-03]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2006-10-31).
  8. ^ Iran: Religious minority reports arson attacks. Persian Journal. [2008-08-03]. (原始内容存档于2013-06-10).
  9. ^ Islam and apostasy. The Religion Report. ABC Radio National (Australia). [2008-08-05]. (原始内容存档于2011-10-12).
  10. ^ Bahá'í believers know freedom and oppression. Clarion Ledger. [2008-08-03].[失效链接]
  11. ^ Baha’i children in Egypt not being admitted to schools because of their faith. Muslim Network for Bahá'í Rights. [2008-08-03]. (原始内容存档于2019-03-01).
  12. ^ School's Out for the Bahá'ís. Mideast Youth. [2008-08-03]. (原始内容存档于2012-05-25).
  13. ^ Confidential Iran memo exposes policy to deny Bahá'í students university education. Bahá'í World News Service. [2008-08-03]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-19).
  14. ^ Segregation in Iran. Times Higher Education. TSL Education Ltd. [2008-08-03]. (原始内容存档于2011-05-21).
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 Sandra Mackey's account of her attempt to enter Mecca in Mackey, Sandra. The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. W. W. Norton & Company. 1987: 63–64. ISBN 0393324176.
  16. ^ "The official tourism website stated that Jews were banned from entering the country; however, it was not enforced in practice." United States Department of State. Saudi Arabia页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004, February 28, 2005.
  17. ^ Jews barred, said Saudi Web site. CNN. February 28, 2004 [2008-06-02]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-03).
  18. ^ www.sauditourism.gov.sa, 2004-02-06, (原始内容存档于2004-02-06)
  19. ^ Cuddihy, Kathy. An A To Z Of Places And Things Saudi. Stacey International. 2001: 148. ISBN 1900988402.
  20. ^ Orr, David. BCI One Year Extension Of Saudi Contract. Bell Canada Enterprises. 1987-11-12. (原始内容存档于2011-09-27).
  21. ^ Mackey, Sandra. The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. 1987: 63–64.
  22. ^ In the matter of the complaint of Canadian Human Rights Commission alleging discrimination in employment by Bell Canada. Canadian Human Rights Tribunal. 1981-01-30 [2011-02-27]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-19).
  23. ^ London's neighbourhoods 'segregated by religion' 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2015-04-02.
  24. ^ Britain 'sleepwalking to segregation'. [2011-02-27]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-13).
  25. ^ Steele, Jonathan. Today's Bosnia: a dependent, stifled, apartheid regime页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). The Guardian, November 11, 2005.

本页面最后更新于2021-08-19 09:46,点击更新本页查看原网页。台湾为中国固有领土,本站将对存在错误之处的地图、描述逐步勘正。

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器