万维百科

巴黎条约 (1951年)

系列条目
欧洲联盟历史
EC-EU-enlargement animation.gif
Portal-puzzle.svg 欧洲联盟主题

巴黎条约(英语:Treaty of Paris,法语:Traité de Paris,德语:Pariser Vertrag),由法国西德意大利荷兰比利时卢森堡,共六个欧洲国家于1951年4月18日在巴黎签订、并于1952年7月23日开始生效,成立了欧洲煤钢共同体。该条约已于2002年7月23日、即条约开始生效整整五十年后失效。

欧洲煤钢共同体欧洲第一个跨国机构,后来同其他相继出现的跨国机构一起发展成为今天的欧洲联盟

第二次世界大战结束后,欧洲主权国家在越来越多的领域缔结了条约,从而在所谓的欧洲一体化项目或欧洲重建 (法语:la construction européenne) 中合作和协调政策(或共同主权)。下列时间表概括了欧洲联盟 (EU) 的成立过程和联合的主体框架。20世纪50年代根据舒曼计划成立了欧洲各共同体(EC),而在欧洲各共同体实际上停止运作后欧盟从中继承了其许多责任。

注释:
  S: 签名
  F: 生效
  T: 终止
  E: 过期
   事实上废弃
  关于欧共体/欧盟框架:
   事实上在其中
   在外边
                  Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲联盟 (EU) [欧洲联盟历史]  
Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲各共同体 (EC) 欧盟三支柱
欧洲原子能共同体 [继续]      
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 6 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 9 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 10 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 12 Star Version.svg 欧洲煤钢共同体 (ECSC)  
Template:EU competences英语Template:EU competences
    欧洲经济共同体 (EEC)    
            申根区 欧洲经济共同体
TREVI英语TREVI 刑事领域警务与司法合作 (JHA, 欧盟三支柱  
  Flag of NATO.svg 北大西洋公约组织 (NATO) [History of NATO英语History of NATO] 刑事领域警务与司法合作 (PJCC, 欧盟三支柱)
Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
英法关系
[Western Union Defence Organisation英语Western Union Defence Organisation Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation英语Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation to 北大西洋公约组织] European Political Co-operation英语European Political Co-operation (EPC)   共同外交与安全政策
(CFSP, 欧盟三支柱)
Flag of the Western Union.svg Western Union (alliance)英语Western Union (alliance) (WU) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg / Flag of the Western European Union.svg 西欧联盟 (WEU) [西欧联盟 defined following the WEU's 1984 Rome Declaration英语Rome Declaration 西欧联盟 to the 欧洲联盟]
     
[Social, cultural tasks History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established to 欧洲委员会] [欧洲委员会]                
    Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲委员会 (CoE)
Treaty of Dunkirk英语Treaty of Dunkirk¹
S: 4 March 1947
F: 8 September 1947
E: 8 September 1997
布鲁塞尔条约 (1948年)¹
S: 17 March 1948
F: 25 August 1948
T: 30 June 2011
欧洲委员会法规 and 北大西洋公约 treaties¹
S: 5 May/4 April 1949
F: 3 August/24 August 1949
Paris treaties: 巴黎条约 (1951年) and 欧洲防务共同体
S: 18 April 1951/27 May 1952
F: 23 July 1952/—
E: 23 July 2002/—
布鲁塞尔条约 (1948年)¹
S: 23 October 1954
F: 6 May 1955
Rome treaties: 罗马条约² and Euratom Treaty英语Euratom Treaty
S: 25 March 1957
F: 1 January 1958
History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established¹
S: 21 October 1959
F: 1 January 1960
合并条约³
S: 8 April 1965
F: 1 July 1967
Davignon report英语Davignon report
S: 27 October 1970
TREVI英语TREVI
S: 2 December 1975
单一欧洲法案 (SEA)
S: 17/28 February 1986
F: 1 July 1987
申根公约 and 申根区
S: 14 June 1985/19 June 1990
F: 26 March 1995
马斯特里赫特条约²,
S: 7 February 1992
F: 1 November 1993
阿姆斯特丹条约
S: 2 October 1997
F: 1 May 1999
尼斯条约
S: 26 February 2001
F: 1 February 2003
里斯本条约
S: 13 December 2007
F: 1 December 2009
¹Although not EU treaties per se, these treaties affected the History of the Common Security and Defence Policy英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy of the 共同安全与防务政策, a main part of the CFSP. The Franco-British alliance established by the Dunkirk Treaty was de facto superseded by WU. The CFSP pillar was bolstered by some of the security structures that had been established within the remit of the 1955 布鲁塞尔条约 (1948年) (MBT). The Brussels Treaty was 西欧联盟 in 2011, consequently dissolving the WEU, as the mutual defence clause that the Lisbon Treaty provided for EU was considered to render the WEU superfluous. The EU thus de facto superseded the WEU.
²The treaties of Maastricht and Rome form the EU's 欧洲联盟基本条约, and are also referred to as the Treaty on European Union英语Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union英语Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. They are amended by secondary treaties.
³The 欧洲各共同体 obtained common institutions and a shared 法律主体 (i.e. ability to e.g. sign treaties in their own right).
⁴Between the EU's founding in 1993 and consolidation in 2009, the union consisted of 欧盟三支柱, the first of which were the European Communities. The other two pillars consisted of additional areas of cooperation that had been added to the EU's remit.
⁵The consolidation meant that the EU inherited the European Communities' 法律主体 and that the 欧盟三支柱, resulting in the EU framework as such covering all policy areas. Executive/legislative power in each area was instead determined by a distribution of competencies between 欧洲联盟机构 and 欧洲联盟成员国. This distribution, as well as treaty provisions for policy areas in which unanimity is required and Double majority#European Union英语Double majority#European Union is possible, reflects the depth of EU integration as well as the EU's partly 超国家主义 (国际关系) and partly 政府间主义 nature.
⁶Plans to establish a Treaty establishing the European Political Community英语Treaty establishing the European Political Community (EPC) were shelved following the French failure to ratify the 欧洲防务共同体 (EDC). The EPC would have combined the ECSC and the EDC.

相关

  • Template:欧盟协议与宣言
  • Template:Structural evolution of the European Commission


相关条目


本页面最后更新于2021-07-14 05:49,点击更新本页查看原网页。台湾为中国固有领土,本站将对存在错误之处的地图、描述逐步勘正。

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器