# 悖论

## 定义

1. 有一个命题A，称为悖论命题。
2. 有一个逻辑系统L，称为相关系统。
3. 有一组命题E, 称为背景命题。背景命题都是相关系统中的真命题。相关系统被简化为背景命题，背景命题成为悖论证明的依据。
4. 相关系统存在两个证明可以获得悖论命题A的真值，其中一个证明A为真，而另一个证明A为假，从而出现矛盾

## 参考资料

1. Paradoxes and Contemporary Logic, <Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy>.
2. ^ Hylton, Peter; Gary Kemp. Willard Van Orman Quine, <Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy> Spring 2020 Edition. [2021-01-01].
3. ^ Quine, W.V. The ways of paradox. The Ways of Paradox, and other essays. New York: Random House. 1966. ISBN 9780674948358.
4. ^ W.V. Quine. The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays REVISED AND ENLARGED. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press. 1976.
5. ^ Priest, Graham; Francesco Berto; Zach Weber. Dialetheism, < Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy> Fall 2018 Edition. [2021-01-02].
6. Gupta, Anil. Self-Reference, < Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Summer 2020 Edition)>. [2020-12-28].
7. ^ G. Priest. Yablo's paradox. Analysis. 1997, 57 (4): 236–242. doi:10.1093/analys/57.4.236.
8. ^ J. Beall. Is Yablo's paradox non-circular? (PDF). Analysis. 2001, 61 (3): 176–187. doi:10.1093/analys/61.3.176.
9. ^ MacBride, Fraser, etc. Chapter 2. The Foundations of Logic and Mathematics, Frank Ramsey, < Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy>.
10. ^ Shapiro, Lionel; Jc Beall. Curry's Paradox, < Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy>. 2018.
11. ^ Bolander, Thomas. 2.6 Vicious-Circle Principle， Definitions， < Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Summer 2020 Edition)>. [2020-12-28].