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戈都语支

戈都语支
使用族群戈都族
地理分布中南半岛
谱系学分类南亚语系
  • 戈都语支
原始语言原始戈都语
分支
戈都语群
归–布鲁语群(西支)
帕戈语群
达渥–方语群
Glottologkatu1271
Austroasiatic-en.svg
  戈都语支

戈都语支属于南亚语系,使用者人数约有130万。保罗·西德维尔在主持分类工作。他注意到南亚/孟高棉语言在地理上越接近,在词汇上就越接近戈都语和巴拿语。他说这个地理相似性是独立于语言所属的语支而存在的。他还说戈都语支和巴拿语支没有任何共同创新,所以它们是南亚语系下不同的两支。

系属分类

1966年,一项针对东南亚大陆不同南亚语的词汇统计分析研究由世界少数民族语文研究院的语言学家David Thomas和Richard Phillips主持进行。这项研究发现了两支新的南亚语分支,分别是戈都语支和巴拿语支 (Sidwell 2009)。Sidwell (2005)对Diffloth的越-戈都语族假设提出异议,认为证据不明确。戈都语支语言的具体分类支持数据直到1990年代老挝对外国研究者开放边境后才能获得。

Sidwell (2005)

戈都语支以下的分类据Sidwell (2005)。另外,Sidwell (2009)分析发现,戈都语群是戈都语支最保守的分支。

Gehrmann (2019)

Gehrmann (2019)给出下列戈都语分类。

原始戈都语

《民族语》还列了坚语,但它属于巴拿语支 (Sidwell 2003)。Lê, et. al (2014:294)给出一个戈都语次分类,称作“Ba-hi”,分布在越南承天顺化省丰田县山区,但Watson (1996:197):197-205认为“Pacoh Pahi”是帕戈语一种方言。

归语和布鲁语每一种都有约50万使用者。达渥语方言连续体使用人数约有20万。

祖语

原始戈都语及其次级祖语的构拟有:

  • Thomas (1967):《原始东戈都语的音系重构》
  • Diffloth (1982):《音域、消失、音系:戈都语支的历史》
  • Efinov (1983):《原始戈都语的音系重建问题》
  • Peiros (1996):《戈都语比较词典》
  • Therapahan L-Thongkum (2001):《老挝南部塞公省的语言和族群》
  • Paul Sidwell (2005):《戈都语支:分类、重构和词汇比较》

Sidwell (2005)构拟了原始戈都语的辅音系统:

*p *t *c *k
*b *d
*m *n
*w *l, *r *j
*s *h

这基本与原始南亚语相同,除了*ʄ,它在原始戈都语中保留得比在别的南亚语中更好。

词汇同言线

保罗·西德维尔 (2015:185-186)给出下列取代了原始南亚语形式的戈都语支词汇创新。

词义 原始戈都语 原始南亚语
*kɗial *kdɔːr
*kmɔɔ *cnam
眼镜蛇 *duur *ɟaːt
蘑菇 *trɨa *psit
*ʔŋhaaŋ *cʔaːŋ
6 *tbat *tpraw
8 *tgɔɔl *thaːm

Sidwell (2015:173)列出下列戈都语支和巴拿语支共享的词汇创新。

词义 原始戈都语 原始巴拿语 注释
树皮 *ʔnɗɔh *kɗuh
指甲 *knrias *krʔniəh 参考高棉语 kiəh“刻画”
皮肤 *ʔŋkar *ʔəkaːr
站起 *dɨk *dɨk 可能借自占语
*ʔalɔːŋ *ʔlɔːŋ 参考原始克木语 *cʔɔːŋ
*pnaɲ *pnaɲ 参考古孟语 pnaɲ 'army'
号角 *ʔakiː *ʔəkɛː
掌/脚底 *trpaːŋ *-paːŋ
*bɔːh *bɔh
*toŋ *toŋ
10 *ɟit *cit

另外,Diffloth (1992)列出“毛毛虫”“骨”“咳嗽”“放屁”“呼吸”和“血”等戈都语支和越语支共享的词汇创新。越-戈都语的联系可参考Alves (2005)。

另见

阅读更多

  • Gehrmann, Ryan. 2018. Katuic presyllables and derivational morphology in diachronic perspective. In Ring, Hiram & Felix Rau (eds.), Papers from the Seventh International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics, 132-156. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society Special Publication No. 3. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
  • Gehrmann, Ryan. 2017. The Historical Phonology of Kriang, A Katuic Language. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 10.1, 114-139.
  • Gehrmann, Ryan. 2016. The West Katuic languages: comparative phonology and diagnostic tools. Chiang Mai: Payap University MA Thesis.
  • Gehrmann, Ryan. 2015. Vowel Height and Register Assignment in Katuic. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 8. 56-70.
  • Gehrmann, Ryan and Johanna Conver. 2015. Katuic Phonological Features. Mon-Khmer Studies 44. 55-67.
  • Choo, Marcus. 2012. The Status of Katuic. Chiang Mai: Linguistics Institute, Payap University.
  • Choo, Marcus. 2010. Katuic Bibliography with Selected Annotations. Chiang Mai: Linguistics Institute, Payap University.
  • Choo, Marcus. 2009. Katuic Bibliography. Chiang Mai: Linguistics Institute, Payap University.
  • Sidwell, Paul. 2005. The Katuic languages: classification, reconstruction and comparative lexicon. LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics 58. Munich: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-802-7
  • Sidwell, Paul. 2005. Proto-Katuic phonology and the sub-grouping of Mon-Khmer languages. In Paul Sidwell (ed.), SEALSXV: Papers from the 15th Meeting of the South East Asian Linguistics Society, 193-204. Pacific Linguistics PL E1. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Theraphan L-Thongkum. 2002. The Role of endangered Mon-Khmer languages of Xekong Province, Southern Laos, in the reconstruction of Proto-Katuic. In Marlys Macken (ed.), Papers from the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. 407-429. Program for Southeast Asian Studies, Arizona State University.
  • Theraphan L-Thongkum. 2001. ภาษาของนานาชนเผ่าในแขวงเซกองลาวใต้. Phasa khong nanachon phaw nai khweng Sekong Lao Tai. [Languages of the tribes in Xekong province, Southern Laos]. Bangkok: The Thailand Research Fund.
  • Peiros, Ilia. 1996. Katuic comparative dictionary. Pacific Linguistics C-132. Canberra: Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-435-9
  • Miller, John & Carolyn Miller. 1996. Lexical comparison of Katuic Mon-Khmer languages with special focus on So-Bru groups in Northeast Thailand. Mon-Khmer Studies 26. 255-290.
  • Migliazza, Brian. 1992. Lexicostatistic analysis of some Katuic languages. In Amara Prasithrathsint & Sudaporn Luksaneeyanawin (eds.), 3rd International Symposium on Language and Linguistics, 1320-1325. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University.
  • Gainey, Jerry. 1985. A comparative study of Kui, Bruu and So phonology from a genetic point of view. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University MA thesis.
  • Effimov, Aleksandr. 1983. Проблемы фонологической реконструкции прото-катуического языка. Probljemy phonologichjeskoj rjekonstruktsii Proto-Katuichjeskovo jazyka. [Issues in the phonological reconstruction of the Proto-Katuic language]. Moscow: Institute of Far Eastern studies Moscow dissertation.
  • Diffloth, Gérard. 1982. Registres, dévoisement, timbres vocaliques: leur histoire en Katouique. [Registers, devoicing, vowel phonation: their history in Katuic]. Mon-Khmer Studies 11. 47-82.
  • Thomas, Dorothy. M. (1967). A phonological reconstruction of Proto–East Katuic. Grand Forks: University of North Dakota MA thesis.

参考

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Katuic. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016.
  2. ^ Gehrmann, Ryan. 2019. On the Origin of Rime Laryngealization in Ta’oiq: A Case Study in Vowel Height Conditioned Phonation Contrasts. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics (ICAAL8), Chiang Mai, Thailand, August 29–31, 2019.
  3. ^ Lê Bá Thảo, Hoàng Ma, et. al; Viện hàn lâm khoa học xã hội Việt Nam - Viện dân tộc học. 2014. Các dân tộc ít người ở Việt Nam: các tỉnh phía nam. Ha Noi: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội. ISBN 978-604-90-2436-8
  4. ^ Watson, Richard L. 1996. Why three phonologies for Pacoh? Mon-Khmer Studies
  5. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2015. "Austroasiatic classification." In Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill.
  6. ^ Diffloth, Gérard. 1992. "Vietnamese As a Mon-Khmer Language." In Papers from the First Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, edited by Martha Ratliff and Eric Schiller. 125-139. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies.
  7. ^ Alves, Mark. 2005. "The Vieto-Katuic Hypothesis: Lexical Evidence." In SEALS XV: Papers from the 15th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 2003, edited by Paul Sidwell. 169-176. Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.

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