磁化强度本文重定向自 磁化強度

（重定向自反磁化）

${\displaystyle \mathbf {M} \ {\stackrel {def}{=}}\ n\mathbf {m} }$

麦克斯韦方程组

磁感应强度、磁场强度和磁化强度之间的关系

${\displaystyle \mathbf {H} \ {\stackrel {def}{=}}\ {\frac {1}{\mu _{0}}}\mathbf {B} -\mathbf {M} }$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {M} =\chi _{m}\mathbf {H} }$

磁化电流

${\displaystyle \mathbf {J} _{b}\ {\stackrel {def}{=}}\ \nabla \times \mathbf {M} }$
${\displaystyle \mathbf {K} _{b}\ {\stackrel {def}{=}}\ \mathbf {M} \times {\hat {n}}}$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {J} =\mathbf {J} _{f}+\mathbf {J} _{b}+\mathbf {J} _{P}}$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {J} _{P}={\frac {\partial \mathbf {P} }{\partial t}}}$

静磁学

${\displaystyle \mathbf {\nabla \cdot H} =-\nabla \cdot \mathbf {M} }$
${\displaystyle \mathbf {\nabla \times H} =0}$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {\nabla \cdot E} ={\frac {\rho }{\epsilon _{0}}}}$
${\displaystyle \mathbf {\nabla \times E} =0}$

磁性物质

抗磁性

${\displaystyle \chi =-\ {\frac {\mu _{0}NZe^{2}}{6m}}\langle r^{2}\rangle }$

顺磁性

${\displaystyle \chi =C/T}$

铁磁性

${\displaystyle \chi =C/(T-T_{c})}$

${\displaystyle \Delta M(T)/M_{0}=\beta T^{3/2}}$

反铁磁性

${\displaystyle \chi ={\frac {2C}{T+T_{N}}}}$

${\displaystyle \chi ={\frac {2C}{T+\theta }}}$

• 假设外磁场垂直于自旋，则垂直磁化率近似为常数 ${\displaystyle \chi _{\perp }\approx C/T_{N}}$
• 假设外磁场平行于自旋，则在绝对温度0K时，平行磁化率为零；在从0K到奈尔温度 ${\displaystyle T_{N}}$ 之间，平行磁化率会从 ${\displaystyle \chi _{\parallel }(0)=0}$ 平滑地单调递增至 ${\displaystyle \chi _{\parallel }(T_{N})=C/T_{N}}$

注释

1. ^ 更确切地说，当 ${\displaystyle \mu B/K_{B}T\gg 1}$ 时，居里定律成立；其中，${\displaystyle \mu }$ 是磁矩，${\displaystyle K_{B}}$玻尔兹曼常数

参考文献

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