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社会无政府主义本文重定向自 社會無政府主義

(重定向自左派無政府主義)

社会无政府主义Social anarchismSocialist anarchism),也称无政府社会主义Anarcho-socialismAnarchist socialism)、社群无政府主义(Communitarian anarchism)(可与自由意志社会主义、左派自由意志主义、左派无政府主义交替使用),是用来区分两大类无政府主义的一种总称,一类是集体主义,另一类是个人无政府主义。个人主义型式的无政府主义强调个人自治和人类的理性,社会无政府主义者“将个人自由视为与社会平等在概念上的连结,强调社会公众和互助”。 不同于个人无政府主义着重在私有财产或财物的重要性,社会无政府主义反对私有财产,视为是社会不平等的来源。

社会无政府主义作为无政府主义的一个分支,认为个人自由互助英语Mutual aid (organization theory)相联系。其理论强调共同体平等原则是对自主权公民自由的补充,它试图通过在地方分权联邦制中保持言论自由,思想自由和辅助性原则来达到这种平衡。辅助性原则的最佳定义是“一个人不应该超出个人的范围,并向共同体承诺可以通过他们自己拥有的企业和工厂完成工作”并且“每一种社会机构都应该具有向社会成员提供帮助的性质,而不是统治或兼并他们”,最明显地表达这种特征的口号或许是“不要将自治的机构从人们手中夺走。”

社会无政府主义一直是无政府主义的主要流派。从术语上讲,强调社群主义合作社主义的社会无政府主义与个人无政府主义形成鲜明对比,同时与后者一样作为无政府主义,反对与集体思维从众行为相关的威权共产主义,这有利于个人社会之间的和谐。同时社会无政府主义通过人民自决工人自治教育英语Anarchism and education赋权并基于反权威的检查和警惕来抵制权威。尽管“检查”这一概念可能显得与无政府主义原则相违背,但实际上无政府主义的检查所指向的是个体对个人自由的捍卫和非强制:DIY的思想方法与社会领域的教育相结合。最重要的是,社会无政府主义还主张将现在和未来的私有生产资料转换成公有制,它认为这么做可以通过更轻松地使用生产资料来保持对个人财产的尊重并通过共享公共资源来保护个人权利。

社会无政府主义被认为是一个笼统的术语,因为它通常指代着诸如无政府共产主义集体无政府主义以及互助主义英语Mutualism (economic theory)等概念,有时也可以包括由非国家控制的基尔特社会主义英语guild socialist联盟,基于企业内双重权力的产业民主经济民主英语economic democracy,甚至是主张由工人委员会联盟,工人委员会取代国家并保留大部分基本权利的派系。此外,它还包括无政府工团主义工会理论,Platformism英语Platformismspecifism英语Especifismo的社会斗争策略以及社会生态学。作为一个术语,随着社会无政府主义的语义与发生重叠,在19世纪末与个人无政府主义相区别开后,以无政府共产主义取代“集体无政府主义”成为主要趋势[来源请求]

社会无政府主义属于自由意志主义自由意志社会主义,左翼自由主义。它在十九世纪末兴起并与个人无政府主义相区别。

社会无政府主义被描述为无政府主义的集体主义或共产主义流派,并代表了与社会主义相适应的无政府主义形式,这令其与以个人无政府主义为代表的自由社会主义派形成鲜明对比。但是,一些集体或无政府共产主义者在激进的个人主义理论上建立了他们的理论,将集体主义或共产主义视为实现个人自由的最佳社会制度。 个人主义-社会主义之间的区分也受到质疑,因为个人无政府主义在很大程度上是社会主义的,并且相互影响。

在美国,“社会无政府主义”是指出版《社会无政府主义》这本刊物的圈子,之后由默里·布克钦所宣扬。布克金将社会无政府主义结合“左派”,他在当中提到了“人类团结的优秀传统与人性潜力的信念”、国际主义邦联主义民主精神、反军国主义和理性的世俗主义。然而,宗教无政府主义和宗教左派则反对左派与“理性世俗主义”的合作,并发起了多次左翼宗教运动,如解放神学民权运动。社会无政府主义致力于“自由结交的人们在自由社区内居住并合作”。

参考文献

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