万维百科

祭祀

祭祀
Korean culture-Jesa-02.jpg
朝鲜语名称
谚文제사
英语名称
英语 Jesa

祭祀,(英语::sacrifice;祀:ritual;韩语:제사,罗马化:Jesa)演变自中国古代“牺牲”仪式,是指以线香肉类蔬果布帛(传统儒教祭祀)等供品向神灵圣徒或者亡魂奉献、祈祷的一种行为。现代祭祀一般没有供奉活物、烧化祭等有一定原始崇拜性质的仪式

作为文化融合的一部分,儒家文化中的祭祀除了宗教层面外,也有纪念的意义。通常是纪念死去的先祖,但儒家也认为,凡是有利于人类生存和发展的人或物,都可以列入祭祀对象。东亚的天主教徒、佛教徒和无宗教信仰者受儒家文化影响,有时也会进行一定的祭祀活动,典型一例即是17-18世纪天主教传教士因祭祀礼仪问题导致的中国礼仪之争。在第二次梵蒂冈大公会议(1962-1965)上,祭祖祭孔被正式认可,成为天主教教义的一部分,但现代基督徒,特别是基督新教信徒,已不再祭祖或祭孔。

内容

祭或祭祀,从内容上包括场地、仪式、祭文(祝祷词)、祭品等内容:

  • 仪式,有祭礼祭典
  • 节日,有祭典、祭日、庙会;
  • 对象,祭亡灵、祭天地、祭神灵(神和世界万物),有祭祖、祭烈士、祭死难者
  • 手段,有活祭、牲祭,包括活人祭
  • 祭品,祭祀用品包括活人、动物和其他祭品;
  • 根据仪式大小分类,有官方祭典(公祭)、民间祭祀活动包括家祭,有祭饭(祭席)、祭食;
  • 设施和用具,有祭祀建筑、祭祀用具、祭品。

与牺牲的关联

许多祭祀仪式会涉及牺牲。依据牺牲种类不同,主要可分为动物祭(英语:animal sacrifice)和人祭(英语:human sacrifice,强调其谋杀性质时称为ritual murder),依据祭品是否死亡以及死亡方式,可分为一般性祭品、自杀祭(英语:ritual suicide)、仪式性自残以及活祭(生祭)。

现代亚洲汉字文化圈只有动物祭

祭神与祭祖在仪式上的区别

虽然同为祭祀,但是祭祀神灵与祭祀祖先,在仪式上并不相同。以浙江省岱山县的民俗为例,祭祀神灵(如年神)时祭桌为东西朝向(即桌缝东西向),而祭祖时南北向;祭祖时祭桌上摆设较固定,朝南或朝大门方向的上香,其它三面各摆四筷四酒四饭,上3*4共十二碗菜以上,而祭神时,通常是香烛南向,北向并排由桌沿(北)向南摆放6茶6酒。

汉字文化圈祭祀

祭祀点

汉族的祭祀文化历史悠久,而多个与汉族关系密切的民族也继承汉族的祭祀文化。

古中国

时代,贵族有一套非常复杂且等级森严的祭祀制度,垄断与神灵沟通的权力。只有王才有权力与资源召集宗室、铸造礼器,所以祭祀也可以被用来展示王统治的合法性。张光直在他的著作《美术、神话与祭祀》中认为,古代中国统治阶级的政治权威正是来自于祭祀。仪式发展为维系国家运作的法律,举办祭祀的祠堂同时也是处理政事、调解和审判的殿堂 。即使后来封建制度瓦解,新的统治者---皇帝依然会举行祭祀。


商代祭祀的对象有自然万物和王室的祖先。 万物崇拜方面,商代可能已经出现至高神的概念。与其他农业文明不同,商代很少祭祀太阳或月亮,而更重视河神,会将祭品丢入河中淹死或埋在河岸 。至于祖先崇拜,王室相信祖先能够影响天气、战争结果和作物收成 ,进而威胁国家存亡,所以会祭祀祖先、在丰收或打胜仗时举行感恩祭 。假如王室成员关系不合、不遵守仪式规范、触犯禁忌或社会腐败时,可能会触怒祖先而导致天灾人祸,王室成员生病也会被视为祖先的惩罚 。王室还相信王朝的创立者商汤死后会继续关注国家,所以商汤经常成为祭祀的焦点 。

祭祀是商王的主要职责(商王可能掌控了一群专业的祭司,或者他自己就是一名萨满 ),因此商王会发动战争、举办狩猎,以取得祭祀所需要的资源 。祭祀在某种程度上带动了华夏文明早期的生产活动,商代许多文明成果都与祭祀有关,如甲骨文礼器等。


周朝的祭祀规格由高而低为太牢、少牢、特牲、特豕、特豚、鱼、腊、豆等。太牢礼原本只有天子可以使用,但自从汉高祖以太牢之礼祭孔子之后 ,现代的祭孔大典也会使用太牢礼。

春秋战国时,诸子百家几乎都反对人祭儒家支持恢复周朝的祭祀制度(不包含人祭),在儒家经典(如礼记)中有详细的研究与记载,但目的由安抚鬼神转化为教化人民与维护社会秩序。墨家反对祭祀,因为他们认为祭祀非常浪费社会资源。

近现代

中华人民共和国文革之后,长期处于祭祀的真空期,至1990年代初才慢慢恢复部分祭祀活动,近年来,很多祭礼又重新恢复,不过在城市生活的人普遍不会主动参加祭祀活动。而台湾则保持了长期的祭祀传统,也保留了一套较为完整的祭礼,如妈祖观音妈关公王爷公祖师公上帝公土地公太子爷国姓爷等佛、道教神灵都依照时令节庆祭拜,也有大成至圣先师的祭祀。

东亚各地至今仍保留大量的传统祭祀。日本本土日本琉球韩国越南、等除了从中国传入的中国节日祭祀外,也在当地发展出不少本土文化的祭祀仪式。

相关

参考文献

  1. ^ Takashima, Ken-ichi; Xiaobing Wang-Riese and Thomas O. Höllmann. Wiesbaden: Otto. Jisi 祭祀: A Reconstruction of the Ji Sacrifice and the Si Ritual in Ancient China. Time and Ritual in Early China. 2009: pp. 33–68.
  2. ^ 张岂之. 传统文化独特的自我创新之路,( 2014年12月22日16 版). 光明网. 清华大学近春园. [2020-02-18]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-13).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Kuiper, Kathleen. Chinese Rites Controversy (Roman Catholicism) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006-08-31 [2013-02-19]. (原始内容存档于2020-11-23). The continuing controversy involved leading universities in Europe, was considered by eight popes and by the Kangxi emperor...
  4. ^ Suh, Sharon A., Being Buddhist in a Christian World: Gender and Community in a Korean American Temple, University of Washington Press: 49, 2004, ISBN 0-295-98378-7
  5. ^ Kwon, Okyun. Buddhist and protestant Korean immigrants: religious beliefs and socioeconomic aspects of life. LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC. 2003: 137–138. ISBN 978-1-931202-65-7.
  6. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). The kind of archeological evidence as summarized above strongly suggests that the Shang state was held together by ritual. Ritual rules and obligations were in fact law, the legal system developing out of ritual as in other cultures. The ancestral temple was the center of ritual and therefore the center of state affairs.
  7. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). Unlike other ancient agricultural states, no sacrifice was ever offered to the sun or the moon. Instead, the river god Ho played an important part in ancient Chinese ritual, requiring his own set of animal and human sacrifices which were sunk, or buried on the river banks.
  8. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). Royal ancestors were believed to control the weather and the welfare (peace, harmony, etc.) of the state. They had the power to influence the course of nature.
  9. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). Also, these ancestors were thanked for good weather and harvests and for victory in battle, all in “thanksgiving” sacrifice.
  10. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). Conversely, the humans therefore blamed them for droughts, bad harvests, enemy invasions, or, for the curses they inflict upon the members of the elite. The role the Chinese attributed to their ancestors follows universal patterns. When social ills began to proliferate and clan relationships to crumble, when ritual was neglected and taboo broken, the ancestors were allegedly displeased with the living and caused natural disasters, nightmares, social disharmony and other ills.
  11. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). The royal family worshipped the founder of the dynasty as an ancestor who continued to have an interest in its maintenance and, therefore, continued to be the center of attention.
  12. ^ 张光直. Art, Myth, and Ritual:The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China. USA: Harvard University Press. 1988-10-15: 45. ISBN 9780674048089 (英语).
  13. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). Oracle-bone inscription indeed suggest that Shang kings danced and foretold the future, two activities which, in many archaic cultures, were the domains of shamans. It is possible, however, that such report was based on the activities of “professional” shamans under the king’s control.
  14. ^ Herbert Plutschow. Archaic Chinese Sacrificial Practices in the Light of Generative Anthropology. Anthropoetics. 1996 [2021-07-22] (英语). Among the kings’ most important functions were sacrificial ritual, and ritual-related war and hunting, understood, among others, as a state-unifying, ritual action in search of sacrificial supply.
  15. ^ 曲阜祭孔大典. 搜狐文化. 汉高祖刘邦过鲁,以“太牢”祭祀孔子,开历代帝王祭孔之先河。

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