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Kyowa-go

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Harmony language in Manchukuo
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese協和語
Simplified Chinese协和语
Japanese name
Hiraganaきょうわご
こうあご
にちまんご
だいとうあご
Katakanaキョウワゴ
コウアゴ
ニチマンゴ
ダイトウアゴ
Kyūjitai協和語
興亞語
日滿語
大東亞語
Shinjitai協和語
興亜語
日満語
大東亜語

Kyowa-go (協和語, Kyōwa-go, "Commonwealth language" or "Concordia language") or Xieheyu (Chinese: 協和語/协和语; lit. 'Harmony language') is either of two pidginized languages, one Japanese-based and one Chinese-based, that were spoken in Manchukuo in the 1930s and 1940s. They are also known as Kōa-go (興亞語, "Asia development language"), Nichiman-go (日滿語, "Japanese-Manchu language"), and Daitōa-go (大東亞語, "Greater East Asia language").

Description

The term Kyowa-go/Xieheyu is derived from the Manchukuo state motto "Concord of Nationalities" (民族協和 mínzú xiéhe) promoted by the Pan-Asian Movement. The pidgin language resulted from the need of Japanese officials and soldiers and the Han and Manchu population that spoke mainly Chinese to communicate with each other. Manchukuo officials later dubbed the pidgin language "Kyowa-go" or "Xieheyu", meaning "Concord language". However, the Japanese also wanted to implement their own language in Manchukuo, saying that Japanese is a language which has a soul, so the language must be spoken correctly.

Kyowa-go/Xieheyu died out when Manchukuo fell to the Soviet Red Army in the last days of World War II. Documentation of the pidgin language is rare today.

It was also believed that many of the expressions of Chinese characters in manga (e.g. aru) are derived from Japanese-based Kyowa-go. Hence, it is typical of Chinese characters in anime shows to speak in that manner.

It was also believed that many of the expressions of Japanese characters in movies set in the Second Sino-Japanese War (e.g. 悄悄地進村,打槍的不要) are derived from Chinese-based Xieheyu. Hence, it is typical of Japanese characters in movies shows to speak in that manner.

The Japanese were also known to use pidgin languages in Japan itself during the 19th and 20th centuries like Yokohama Pidgin Japanese.

Examples of Japanese-based Kyowa-go

Kyowa-go
協和語
RegionManchukuo
Extinctca. 1930–1945
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
GlottologNone

Kyowa-go is characterized by a particle aru, omission of some particles, and many loan-words from Chinese language. 

  • 私日本人アルヨ Watashi nipponjin aru yo
    • Original Japanese: 私は日本人です Watashi wa nipponjin desu meaning "I am a Japanese".
  • (クー) (ニャン)綺麗アルネ Kūnyan (gūnyan) kirei aru ne
    • Original Japanese: お孃さんは綺麗ですね Ojōsan wa kirei desu ne meaning "Your daughter is beautiful"
  • 貴方座るの椅子ないアルヨ Anata suwaru no isu nai aru yo
    • Original Japanese: 貴方が座る椅子はありません "Anata ga suwaru isu wa arimasen" meaning "There is no chair for you"
  • アイヤー(哎呀) Aiyaa!
    • Exclamation of surprise from the Chinese.

Examples of Chinese-based Xieheyu

Xiehe-yu
協和語
RegionManchukuo
Extinctca. 1930–1945
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
GlottologNone

Xieheyu sometimes uses subject–object–verb, the normal Japanese word order, which is different from Standard Chinese.

  • 你的幫我,我的錢的大大的給。 nǐde bāngwǒ, wǒde qiánde dàdàde gěi.
    • Original Chinese: 你幫我,我給你很多錢。 nǐ bāngwǒ, wǒ gěinǐ hěnduō qián. (If you help me, I'll give you a lot of money.)
  • 高橋歐庫桑,豬的看見沒有?那邊的跑了的有。 gāoqiáo okusan, zhūde kànjiàn méiyǒu? nàbiānde pǎolede yǒu. (歐庫桑 , pronounced okusan , is a phonetic translation of Japanese 奥さん, which means "one's wife")
    • Original Chinese: 高橋太太,看見那隻豬了嗎?已經跑到那邊去啦。 gāoqiáo tàitai, kànjiàn nàzhī zhū le mā? yǐjīng pǎodaò nàbiān qùla. (Mrs. Takahashi, did you see that pig? It ran that way.)

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ne.jp/asahi/nihongo/okajima/huseigo/
  2. ^ ja:協和語#cite ref-2
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2013-08-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

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