# The Gambia

(Redirected from Gambia)
Republic of The Gambia

Motto: "Progress, Peace, Prosperity"
CapitalBanjul
13°28′N 16°36′W﻿ / ﻿13.467°N 16.600°W
Largest citySerekunda
Official languagesEnglish
National languages
Ethnic groups
(2013 Census)
Demonym(s)Gambian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic under a parliamentary system
Isatou Touray
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
18 February 1965
• dissolution of the Senegambia Confederation
30 September 1989
Area
• Total
10,689 km2 (4,127 sq mi) (159th)
• Water (%)
11.5
Population
• 2017 estimate
2,051,363 (146)
• 2013 census
1,857,181
• Density
176.1/km2 (456.1/sq mi) (74th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$3.582 billion • Per capita$1,686
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$1.038 billion • Per capita$488
Gini (2015) 35.9
medium
HDI (2018) 0.466
low · 174th
CurrencyDalasi (GMD)
Time zone (GMT)
Daylight saving time is not observed
Driving sideright
Calling code+220
ISO 3166 codeGM
Internet TLD.gm

The Gambia (; Mandinka: Kambiya; Wolof: Gámbi), officially the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in Western Africa. The Gambia is often referred to as 'The Smiling Coast'. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa, and is surrounded by Senegal, except for its western coast on the Atlantic Ocean. The Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 10,689 square kilometres (4,127 sq mi) with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census. Banjul is the Gambian capital and the country's largest metropolitan area. The largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama.

The Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, which was the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as A Gâmbia. Later, on 25 May 1765, The Gambia was made a part of the British Empire when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Province of Senegambia. In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup. Adama Barrow became The Gambia's third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in the December 2016 elections. Jammeh initially accepted the results, then refused to accept them, which triggered a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States, resulting in his exile.

The Gambia's economy is dominated by farming, fishing and, especially, tourism. In 2015, 48.6% of the population lived in poverty. In rural areas, poverty is even more widespread, at almost 70%.

## Etymology

The name "Gambia" is derived from the Mandinka term Kambra/Kambaa, meaning Gambia River (or possibly from the sacred Serer Gamba, a special type of calabash beaten when a Serer elder dies). According to the CIA World Factbook, the United States Department of State, the Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, The Gambia is one of two countries whose self-standing short name for official use should begin with the word "The" (the other being The Bahamas). Habitually, the definite article is sometimes still used when addressing many other countries, including Netherlands, Philippines, Congo, Sudan, Comoros, Central African Republic, Seychelles, Maldives, Solomon Islands, Dominican Republic, Czech Republic, Marshall Islands, United Kingdom and United States of America, with varying degrees of accuracy. Upon independence in 1965, the country used the name The Gambia. Following the proclamation of a republic in 1970, the long-form name of the country became Republic of The Gambia. The administration of Yahya Jammeh changed the long-form name to Islamic Republic of The Gambia in December 2015. On 29 January 2017 President Adama Barrow changed the name back to Republic of The Gambia.

## History

Arab traders provided the first written accounts of the Gambia area in the ninth and tenth centuries. During the tenth century, Muslim merchants and scholars established communities in several West African commercial centres. Both groups established trans-Saharan trade routes, leading to a large export trade of local people as slaves, along with gold and ivory, as well as imports of manufactured goods.

Senegambian stone circles (megaliths) which run from Senegal through the Gambia and are described by UNESCO as "the largest concentration of stone circles seen anywhere in the world".

By the 11th or 12th century, the rulers of kingdoms such as Takrur, a monarchy centred on the Senegal River just to the north, ancient Ghana and Gao had converted to Islam and had appointed to their courts Muslims who were literate in the Arabic language. At the beginning of the 14th century, most of what is today called The Gambia was part of the Mali Empire. The Portuguese reached this area by sea in the mid-15th century and began to dominate overseas trade.

In 1588, the claimant to the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, sold exclusive trade rights on the Gambia River to English merchants. Letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the grant. In 1618, King James I of England granted a charter to an English company for trade with the Gambia and the Gold Coast (now Ghana). Between 1651 and 1661, some parts of the Gambia - St. Andrew's Island in the Gambia River including Fort Jakob, and St. Mary Island (modern day Banjul) and Fort Jillifree - came under the rule of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth now in modern-day Latvia, having been bought by Prince Jacob Kettler.. The colonies were formally ceded to England in 1664.

During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century, the British Empire and the French Empire struggled continually for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal River and the Gambia River. The British Empire occupied the Gambia when an expedition led by Augustus Keppel landed there following the Capture of Senegal in 1758. The 1783 First Treaty of Versailles gave Great Britain possession of the Gambia River, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the river's north bank. This was finally ceded to the United Kingdom in 1856.

As many as three million people may have been taken as slaves from this general region during the three centuries that the transatlantic slave trade operated. It is not known how many people were taken as slaves by intertribal wars or Muslim traders before the transatlantic slave trade began. Most of those taken were sold by other Africans to Europeans: some were prisoners of intertribal wars; some were victims sold because of unpaid debts, and many others were simply victims of kidnapping.

Traders initially sent people to Europe to work as servants until the market for labour expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. In 1807, the United Kingdom abolished the slave trade throughout its empire. It also tried, unsuccessfully, to end the slave trade in the Gambia. Slave ships intercepted by the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron in the Atlantic were also returned to the Gambia, with people who had been slaves released on MacCarthy Island far up the Gambia River where they were expected to establish new lives. The British established the military post of Bathurst (now Banjul) in 1816.

### Gambia Colony and Protectorate (1821–1965)

The British Governor, George Chardin Denton (1901–1911), and his party, 1905

In the ensuing years, Banjul was at times under the jurisdiction of the British Governor-General in Sierra Leone. In 1888, The Gambia became a separate colony.

An agreement with the French Republic in 1889 established the present boundaries. The Gambia became a British Crown colony called British Gambia, divided for administrative purposes into the colony (city of Banjul and the surrounding area) and the protectorate (remainder of the territory). The Gambia received its own executive and legislative councils in 1901, and it gradually progressed toward self-government. Slavery was abolished in 1906 and following a brief conflict between the British colonial forces and indigenous Gambians, British colonial authority was firmly established.

During World War II, some soldiers fought with the Allies of World War II. Though these soldiers fought mostly in Burma, some died closer to home and a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery is in Fajara (close to Banjul). Banjul contained an airstrip for the US Army Air Forces and a port of call for Allied naval convoys.

After World War II, the pace of constitutional reform increased. Following general elections in 1962, the United Kingdom granted full internal self-governance in the following year.

Stamp with portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, 1953

### Post-Independence (1965–present)

The Gambia achieved independence on 18 February 1965, as a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth, with Elizabeth II as Queen of the Gambia, represented by the Governor-General. Shortly thereafter, the national government held a referendum proposing that the country become a republic. This referendum failed to receive the two-thirds majority required to amend the constitution, but the results won widespread attention abroad as testimony to The Gambia's observance of secret balloting, honest elections, civil rights, and liberties.

On 24 April 1970, The Gambia became a republic within the Commonwealth, following a second referendum. Prime Minister Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara assumed the office of President, an executive post, combining the offices of head of state and head of government.

President Sir Dawda Jawara was re-elected five times. An attempted coup on 29 July 1981 followed a weakening of the economy and allegations of corruption against leading politicians. The coup attempt occurred while President Jawara was visiting London and was carried out by the leftist National Revolutionary Council, composed of Kukoi Samba Sanyang's Socialist and Revolutionary Labour Party (SRLP) and elements of the Field Force, a paramilitary force which constituted the bulk of the country's armed forces.

President Jawara requested military aid from Senegal, which deployed 400 troops to The Gambia on 31 July. By 6 August, some 2,700 Senegalese troops had been deployed, defeating the rebel force. Between 500 and 800 people were killed during the coup and the ensuing violence. In 1982, in the aftermath of the 1981 attempted coup, Senegal and The Gambia signed a treaty of confederation. The Senegambia Confederation aimed to combine the armed forces of the two states and to unify their economies and currencies. After just seven years, The Gambia permanently withdrew from the confederation in 1989.

In 1994, the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC) deposed the Jawara government and banned opposition political activity. Lieutenant Yahya A.J.J. Jammeh, chairman of the AFPRC, became head of state. Jammeh was just 29 years old at the time of the coup. The AFPRC announced a transition plan to return to a democratic civilian government. The Provisional Independent Electoral Commission (PIEC) was established in 1996 to conduct national elections and transformed into the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) in 1997 and became responsible for the registration of voters and for the conduct of elections and referendums.

In late 2001 and early 2002, The Gambia completed a full cycle of presidential, legislative, and local elections, which foreign observers[who?] deemed free, fair, and transparent. President Yahya Jammeh, who was elected to continue in the position he had assumed during the coup, took the oath of office again on 21 December 2001. Jammeh's Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction (APRC) maintained its strong majority in the National Assembly, particularly after the main opposition United Democratic Party (UDP) boycotted the legislative elections. (It has participated in elections since, however).

On 2 October 2013, the Gambian interior minister announced that The Gambia would leave the Commonwealth with immediate effect, ending 48 years of membership of the organisation. The Gambian government said it had "decided that The Gambia will never be a member of any neo-colonial institution and will never be a party to any institution that represents an extension of colonialism".

Incumbent President Jammeh faced opposition leaders Adama Barrow from the Independent Coalition of parties and Mamma Kandeh from the Gambia Democratic Congress party in the December 2016 presidential elections. The Gambia sentenced main opposition leader and human rights advocate Ousainou Darboe to 3 years in prison in July 2016, disqualifying him from running in the presidential election.

Following the 1 December 2016 elections, the elections commission declared Adama Barrow the winner of the presidential election. Jammeh, who had ruled for 22 years, first announced he would step down after losing the 2016 election before declaring the results void and calling for a new vote, sparking a constitutional crisis and leading to an invasion by an ECOWAS coalition. On 20 January 2017, Jammeh announced that he had agreed to step down and would leave the country.

On 14 February 2017, The Gambia began the process of returning to its membership of the Commonwealth and formally presented its application to re-join to Secretary-General Patricia Scotland on 22 January 2018. Boris Johnson, who became the first British Foreign Secretary to visit The Gambia since the country gained independence in 1965, announced that the British government welcomed The Gambia's return to the Commonwealth. The Gambia officially rejoined the Commonwealth on 8 February 2018.

## Geography

Map of The Gambia
Kololi beach on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean

The Gambia is a very small and narrow country whose borders mirror the meandering Gambia River. It lies between latitudes 13 and 14°N, and longitudes 13 and 17°W.

The Gambia is less than 50 kilometres (31 miles) wide at its widest point, with a total area of 11,295 km2 (4,361 sq mi). About 1,300 square kilometres (500 square miles) (11.5%) of The Gambia's area are covered by water. It is the smallest country on the African mainland. In comparative terms, The Gambia has a total area slightly less than that of the island of Jamaica.

Senegal surrounds The Gambia on three sides, with 80 km (50 mi) of coastline on the Atlantic Ocean marking its western extremity.

The present boundaries were defined in 1889 after an agreement between the United Kingdom and France. During the negotiations between the French and the British in Paris, the French initially gave the British around 200 miles (320 km) of the Gambia River to control. Starting with the placement of boundary markers in 1891, it took nearly 15 years after the Paris meetings to determine the final borders of The Gambia. The resulting series of straight lines and arcs gave the British control of areas about 10 miles (16 km) north and south of the Gambia River.

### Climate

The Gambia has a tropical climate. A hot and rainy season normally lasts from June until November, but from then until May, cooler temperatures predominate, with less precipitation. The climate in The Gambia closely resembles that of neighbouring Senegal, of southern Mali, and of the northern part of Benin.

## Politics and government

Dawda Jawara
1st President (1970–1994)
Prime Minister (1962–1970)
Yahya Jammeh
2nd President (1996–2017)
Chairman of the AFPRC (1994–1996)
The Arch 22 monument commemorating the 1994 coup which saw the then 29-year-old Yahya Jammeh seize power in a bloodless coup, ousting Dawda Jawara, who had been President of the Gambia since 1970

The Gambia gained independence from the United Kingdom on 18 February 1965. From 1965 to 1994, the country was ostensibly a multi-party liberal democracy. It was ruled by Dawda Jawara and his People's Progressive Party (PPP). However, the country never experienced political turnover during this period and its commitment to succession by the ballot box was never tested. In 1994, a military coup propelled a commission of military officers to power, known as the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC). After two years of direct rule, a new constitution was written and in 1996, the leader of the AFPRC, Yahya Jammeh, was elected as President. He ruled in an authoritarian style until the 2016 election, which was won by Adama Barrow, backed by a coalition of opposition parties.

### Political history

During the Jawara era, there were initially four political parties, the PPP, the United Party (UP), the Democratic Party (DP), and the Muslim Congress Party (MCP). The 1960 constitution had established a House of Representatives, and in the 1960 election no party won a majority of seats. However, in 1961 the British Governor chose UP leader Pierre Sarr N'Jie to serve as the country's first head of government, in the form of a Chief Minister. This was an unpopular decision, and the 1962 election was notable as parties were able to appeal to ethnic and religious differences across The Gambia. The PPP won a majority, and formed a coalition with the Democratic Congress Alliance (DCA; a merger of the DP and MCP). They invited the UP to the coalition in 1963, but it left in 1965.

The UP was seen as the main opposition party, but it lost power from 1965 to 1970. In 1975, the National Convention Party (NCP) was formed by Sheriff Mustapha Dibba, and became the new main opposition party to the PPP's dominance. Both the PPP and NCP were ideologically similar, so in the 1980s a new opposition party emerged, in the form of the radical socialist People's Democratic Organisation for Independence and Socialism (PDOIS). However, between the 1966 and 1992 elections, the PPP was "overwhelmingly dominant", winning between 55% and 70% of the vote in each election and a large majority of seats continually.

In principle, competitive politics existed during the Jawara era, however, it was stated that there was in reality a "one-party monopoly of state power centred around the dominant personality of Dawda Jawara." Civil society was limited post-independence, and opposition parties were weak and at the risk of being declared subversive. The opposition did not have equal access to resources, as the business class refused to finance them. The government had control over when they could make public announcements and press briefings, and there were also allegations of vote-buying and improprieties in the preparation of the electoral register. A 1991 court challenge by the PDOIS against irregularities on the electoral register in Banjul was dismissed on a technicality.

In July 1994, a bloodless military coup d'état brought an end to the Jawara era. The Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC), led by Yahya Jammeh, ruled dictatorially for two years. The council suspended the constitution, banned all political parties, and imposed a dusk-to-dawn curfew on the populace. A transition back to democracy occurred in 1996, and a new constitution was written, though the process was manipulated to benefit Jammeh. In a 1996 referendum, 70% of voters approved the constitution, and in December 1996 Jammeh was elected as President. All but PDOIS of the pre-coup parties were banned, and former ministers were barred from public office.

During Jammeh's rule, the opposition was again fragmented. An example was the infighting between members of the National Alliance for Democracy and Development (NADD) that was formed in 2005. Jammeh used the police forces to harass opposition members and parties. Jammeh was also accused of human rights abuses, especially towards human rights activists, civil society organisations, political opponents, and the media. Their fates included being sent into exile, harassment, arbitrary imprisonment, murder, and forced disappearance. Particular examples include the murder of journalist Deyda Hydara in 2004, a student massacre at a protest in 2000, public threats to kill human rights defenders in 2009, and public threats towards homosexuals in 2013. Furthermore, Jammeh made threats to the religious freedom of non-Muslims, used 'mercenary judges' to weaken the judiciary, and faced numerous accusations of election rigging.

In the December 2016 presidential election, Jammeh was beaten by Adama Barrow, who was backed by a coalition of opposition parties. Jammeh's initial agreement to step down followed by a change of mind induced a constitutional crisis that culminated in a military intervention by ECOWAS forces in January 2017. Barrow pledged to serve at the head of a three-year transitional government. The Nigerian Centre for Democracy and Development describe the challenges facing Barrow as needing to restore "citizen's trust and confidence in the public sector". They describe a "fragile peace" with tensions in rural areas between farmers and the larger communities. They also reported on tensions between ethnic groups developing. An example is that in February 2017, 51 supporters of Jammeh were arrested for harassing supporters of Barrow. Although his election was initially met with enthusiasm, the Centre notes that this has been dampened by Barrow's initial constitutional faux pas with his Vice President, the challenge of inclusion, and high expectations post-Jammeh.

### Constitution

The Gambia has had a number of constitutions in its history. The two most significant are the 1970 constitution, which established The Gambia as a presidential republic, and the 1996 constitution, which served as a basis for Jammeh's rule and was kept following Barrow's victory in 2016. Jammeh manipulated the 1996 constitutional reform process to benefit himself. No reference was made to term limits, indicating Jammeh's preference to stay in power for an extended period of time. According to the 1996 constitution, the President is the head of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Jammeh and Barrow have also both taken on the role of Minister of Defence.

### Presidency

The president appoints the vice president and cabinet of ministers and also chairs the cabinet. The office of Prime Minister was abolished in 1970. Total executive power is vested in the president. They can also appoint five members of the National Assembly, the judges of the superior courts, regional governors, and district chiefs. In terms of the civil service, they can appoint the Public Service Commission, the ombudsman, and the Independent Electoral Commission. The president is directly elected for five-year terms based on a simple majority of votes. There are no term limits. The Constitution is under review as of 2018 and a two-term limit and other changes required to enhance the governance structures are expected.

### Foreign relations

Yahya Jammeh and Mrs. Zeineb Jammeh with Barack and Michelle Obama in the White House, August 2014

The Gambia followed a formal policy of non-alignment throughout most of former President Jawara's tenure. It maintained close relations with the United Kingdom, Senegal, and other African countries. The July 1994 coup strained The Gambia's relationship with Western powers, particularly the United States, which until 2002 suspended most non-humanitarian assistance in accordance with Section 508 of the Foreign Assistance Act. After 1995 President Jammeh established diplomatic relations with several additional countries, including Libya (suspended in 2010), and Cuba. The People's Republic of China cut ties with the Gambia in 1995 – after the latter established diplomatic links with Taiwan – and re-established them in 2016.

The Gambia plays an active role in international affairs, especially West African and Islamic affairs, although its representation abroad is limited. As a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), The Gambia has played an active role in that organisation's efforts to resolve the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone and contributed troops to the community's ceasefire monitoring group (ECOMOG) in 1990 and (ECOMIL) in 2003. In November 2019, The Gambia filed a case against Myanmar in The Hague, accusing its military of genocide against Myanmar's ethnic Rohingya community.

The Gambia has also sought to mediate disputes in nearby Guinea-Bissau and the neighbouring Casamance region of Senegal. The government of The Gambia believed Senegal was complicit in the March 2006 failed coup attempt. This put increasing strains on relations between The Gambia and its neighbour. The subsequent worsening of the human rights situation placed increasing strains on US–Gambian relations.

The Gambia withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations on 3 October 2013, with the government stating it had "decided that The Gambia will never be a member of any neo-colonial institution and will never be a party to any institution that represents an extension of colonialism". Under the new president, The Gambia has begun the process of returning to its status as a Commonwealth republic with the support of the British government, formally presenting its application to re-join the Commonwealth of Nations to Secretary-General Patricia Scotland on 22 January 2018.

The Gambia returned to its status as a Commonwealth republic on 8 February 2018.

### Human rights

According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 78.3% of Gambian girls and women have suffered female genital mutilation. LGBT activity is illegal, and punishable with life imprisonment. Efforts to promote education on the topic include work by Adriana Kaplan Marcusán and others.

The Daily Observer reporter Ebrima Manneh is believed by human rights organizations to have been arrested in July 2006 and secretly held in custody since then. Manneh was reportedly arrested by Gambia's National Intelligence Agency after attempting to republish a BBC report criticizing President Yahya Jammeh. Amnesty International considers him to be a prisoner of conscience and named him a 2011 "priority case". In 2019 the Gambian newspaper The Trumpet reported that Manneh had died in captivity at some point in mid-2008.

### Military

U.S. AFRICOM commander Carter Ham and senior Gambian Army officer Masaneh Kinteh surveying the troops, 21 July 2011

The Gambia Armed Forces (GAF) was created in 1985 as a stipulation of the Senegambia Confederation, a political union between The Gambia and Senegal. It originally consisted of the Gambia National Army (GNA), trained by the British, and Gambia National Gendarmerie (GNG), trained by the Senegalese. The GNG was merged into the police in 1992, and in 1997 Jammeh created a Gambia Navy (GN). Attempts to create a Gambia Air Force in the mid 2000s ultimately fell through. In 2008, Jammeh created a National Republican Guard, composed of special forces units. The GNA has a strength of roughly 900, in two infantry battalions and an engineering company. It makes use of Ferret and M8 Greyhound armoured cars. The GN is equipped with patrol vessels, and Taiwan donated a number of new vessels to the force in 2013.

Since the GAF was formed in 1985, it has been active in UN and African Union peacekeeping missions. It has been classed as a Tier 2 peacekeeping contributor and was described by the Center on International Cooperation as a regional leader in peacekeeping. It dispatched soldiers to Liberia as part of ECOMOG from 1990 to 1991, during which two Gambian soldiers were killed. It has since contributed troops to ECOMIL, UNMIL, and UNAMID. Responsibility for the military has rested directly with the President since Jammeh seized power at the head of a bloodless military coup in 1994. Jammeh also created the role of Chief of the Defence Staff, who is the senior military officer responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Gambia Armed Forces. Between 1958 and 1985, the Gambia did not have a military, but the Gambia Field Force existed as a paramilitary wing of the police. The military tradition of the Gambia can be traced to the Gambia Regiment of the British Army, that existed from 1901 to 1958 and fought in World War I and World War II. In 2017, Gambia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.

The Gambia Armed Forces is and has been the recipient of a number of equipment and training agreements with other countries. In 1992, a contingent of Nigerian soldiers helped lead the GNA. Between 1991 and 2005, the Turkish armed forces helped train Gambian soldiers. It has also hosted British and United States training teams from the Royal Gibraltar Regiment and US AFRICOM.

The Gambia is divided into eight local government areas, including the national capital, Banjul, which is classified as a city. The Divisions of the Gambia were created by the Independent Electoral Commission in accordance to Article 192 of the National Constitution.

Name Area (km2) Population Census 2003 Population Census 2013
(provisional)
Capital Number
of
Districts
Banjul (Capital City) 12.2 35,061 31,301 Banjul 3
Kanifing 75.6 322,735 382,096 Kanifing 1
Brikama
(formerly Western)
1,764.3 389,594 699,704 Brikama 9
Mansa Konko
(formerly Lower River)
1,628.0 72,167 82,381 Mansakonko 6
Kerewan
(formerly North Bank)
2,255.5 172,835 221,054 Kerewan 7
Kuntaur
(formerly the western half
of Central River Division)
1,466.5 78,491 99,108 Kuntaur 5
Janjanbureh
(formerly the eastern half
of Central River Division)
1,427.8 107,212 126,910 Janjanbureh 5
Basse
(formerly Upper River)
2,069.5 182,586 239,916 Basse Santa Su 7
Total Gambia 10,689 1,360,681 1,882,450 Banjul 43

The local government areas are further subdivided (2013) into 43 districts. Of these, Kanifing and Kombo Saint Mary (which shares Brikama as a capital with the Brikama Local Government Area) are effectively part of the Greater Banjul area.

## Economy

Gambia Exports by Product (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
Tourists in Gambia, 2014

The Gambia has a liberal, market-based economy characterised by traditional subsistence agriculture, a historic reliance on groundnuts (peanuts) for export earnings, a re-export trade built up around its ocean port, low import duties, minimal administrative procedures, a fluctuating exchange rate with no exchange controls, and a significant tourism industry.

The World Bank pegged Gambian GDP for 2018 at US$1,624M; the International Monetary Fund put it at US$977M for 2011.[citation needed]

From 2006 to 2012, the Gambian economy grew annually at a rate of 5–6% of GDP.

Agriculture accounts for roughly 30% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 70% of the labour force. Within agriculture, peanut production accounts for 6.9% of GDP, other crops 8.3%, livestock 5.3%, fishing 1.8%, and forestry 0.5%. Industry accounts for about 8% of GDP and services around 58%. The limited amount of manufacturing is primarily agricultural-based (e.g., peanut processing, bakeries, a brewery, and a tannery). Other manufacturing activities involve soap, soft drinks, and clothing.

### Sports

As in neighbouring Senegal, the national and most popular sport in Gambia is wrestling. Association football and basketball are also popular. Football in the Gambia is administered by the Gambia Football Federation, who are affiliated to both FIFA and CAF. The GFA runs league football in the Gambia, including top division GFA League First Division, as well as the Gambia national football team. Nicknamed "The Scorpions", the national side have never qualified for either the FIFA World Cup or the Africa Cup of Nations finals at senior levels. They play at Independence Stadium. The Gambia won two CAF U-17 championships one in 2005 when the country hosted, and 2009 in Algeria automatically qualifying for FIFA U-17 World Cup in Peru (2005) and Nigeria (2009) respectively. The U-20 also qualified for FIFA U-20 2007 in Canada. The female U-17 also competed in FIFA U-17 World Cup 2012 in Azerbaijan.

## References

1. ^ a b c National Population Commission Secretariat (30 April 2005). "2013 Population and Housing Census: Spatial Distribution" (PDF). Gambia Bureau of Statistics. The Republic of The Gambia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
2. ^ "The World Factbook: Gambia, The". CIA. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
3. ^ a b c d "The Gambia". International Monetary Fund.
4. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
5. ^ "Human Development Report 2019" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
6. ^ Hoare, Ben. (2002) The Kingfisher A-Z Encyclopedia, Kingfisher Publications. p. 11. ISBN 0-7534-5569-2.
7. ^ "Banjul | national capital, The Gambia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
8. ^
9. ^ Hughes, Arnold (2008) Historical Dictionary of the Gambia. Scarecrow Press. p. xx. ISBN 0810862603.
10. ^ Wiseman, John A. (2004) Africa South of the Sahara 2004 (33rd edition): The Gambia: Recent History, Europa Publications Ltd. p. 456.
11. ^ Maclean, Ruth (21 January 2017). "Yahya Jammeh leaves the Gambia after 22 years of rule". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
12. ^ a b "Gambia's Yayah Jammeh confirms he will step down". Al Jazeera. 20 January 2017. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
13. ^ Ramsay, Stuart (22 January 2017). "Former Gambia leader Yahya Jammeh flies into political exile". Sky News. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
14. ^ a b "The Gambia overview". World Bank. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
15. ^ Allen Meagher, Andrew Samuel, Baba Ceesay, National Council for the Arts and Culture (Gambia), Historic Sites of The Gambia: Ada Dinkiralu (Mandinka), Bereb-I-Chosan (Wolof), Tarica Tawal (Fula), Nannin (Jola), Soninke Ada (Serehuli), I-Mofan Chosan (Serer) : an Official Guide to the Monuments and Sites of The Gambia, National Council for the Arts and Culture, 1998, pp. 1, 24.
16. ^ Godfrey Mwakikagile, The Gambia and Its People: Ethnic Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa, New Africa Press, 2010, ISBN 9789987160235, p. 141 [1]
17. ^ "Why Africa's 'smiling coast' is officially referred to as 'The' Gambia". www.africanews.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
18. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of the Gambia" (PDF). 1996. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
19. ^ "La Gambie s'autoproclame "État islamique"" (in French). Europe 1. 13 December 2015. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
20. ^ Adegun, Aanu (29 January 2017). "Adama Barrow removes 'Islamic' title from Gambia's name". Naij. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
21. ^ "The Gambia: President Adama Barrow pledges reforms". Al Jazeera. 28 January 2017. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
22. ^ Easton P (1999) "Education and Koranic Literacy in West Africa" Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. IK Notes on Indigenous Knowledge and Practices, n° 11, World Bank Group. pp. 1–4
23. ^ Yevstratyev, O (2018). "Chronological Dating of the Duchy of Courland's Colonial Policy" (PDF). Latvijas Vēstures Institūta Žurnāls. 3: 34–72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
24. ^ Park, Mungo Travels in the Interior of Africa v. II, Chapter XXII – War and Slavery Archived 24 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
25. ^ Webb, Patrick (1994). "Guests of the Crown: Convicts and Liberated Slaves on Mc Carthy Island, the Gambia". The Geographical Journal. 160 (2): 136–142. doi:10.2307/3060072. JSTOR 3060072.
26. ^ Publications, Usa International Business (7 February 2007). Gambia Foreign Policy and Government Guide. Int'l Business Publications. ISBN 978-1-4330-1692-9.
27. ^ "The Gambia History". Encylopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
28. ^ Archer, Frances Bisset (1967) The Gambia Colony and Protectorate: An Official Handbook (Library of African Study). pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-0714611396.
29. ^ a b c d International Business Publication (2012). Gambia Business Law Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Laws. International Business Publication. ISBN 1-4387-6988-1.
30. ^ a b c d
31. ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State document: "Background Note: The Gambia". (section)
32. ^ "UK regrets The Gambia's withdrawal from Commonwealth". BBC News. 3 October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
33. ^ Gambie : l'opposition désigne Adama Barrow comme candidat unique pour affronter Yahya Jammeh en décembre Archived 29 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Senenews.com (31 October 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.
34. ^ Gambia: Will Mama Kandeh's Nomination Papers Be Accepted? – Freedom Newspaper Archived 30 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Freedomnewspaper.com (6 November 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.
35. ^ "Gambia: Prison sentences for opposition leaders continues downward spiral for human rights". Amnesty International. 20 July 2016. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
36. ^ Gambia's Jammeh loses to Adama Barrow in shock election result Archived 29 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News (2 December 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.
37. ^ Gambia leader Yahya Jammeh rejects election result Archived 16 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News (10 December 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.
38. ^ a b "The Gambia: UK 'very pleased' about Commonwealth return". BBC. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
39. ^ a b "The Gambia presents formal application to re-join the Commonwealth" (Media Release). The Commonwealth. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
40. ^ a b Boris Johnson is only delighted the Gambia wants back into the British Commonwealth Archived 15 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. thejournal.ie (15 February 2017)
41. ^ (http://www.hydrant.co.uk), Site designed and built by Hydrant. "The Gambia rejoins the Commonwealth - The Commonwealth". thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
42. ^ Staff, Our Foreign (8 February 2018). "Gambia rejoins the Commonwealth after democratic election". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
43. "The Gambia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
44. ^ Wright, Donald (2004). The World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A History of Globalization in Niumi, The Gambia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0-7656-1007-2.
45. ^ Hayward, Derek; J. S. Oguntoyinbo (1987). Climatology of West Africa. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-389-20721-4.
46. ^ "In Gambia, New Coup Follows Old Pattern". The New York Times. 28 August 1994. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
47. ^ Edie, p. 162
48. ^ a b Edie, pp. 162–164
49. ^ Edie, p. 165
50. ^ Edie, pp. 168–170
51. ^ Edie, p. 182
52. ^ a b Edie, p. 185
53. ^ Edie, p. 186
54. ^ a b "Democratic Transition in the Gambia: The Burden of Leadership and Consolidation" (PDF). Centre for Democracy and Development. 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2018.
55. ^ "Gambia: Political opinion" (PDF). Home Office. March 2017. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2018.
56. ^ a b "The Gambia: Country Focus" (PDF). European Asylum Support Office. December 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2018.
57. "Background note: The Gambia" . U.S. Department of State (October 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
58. ^ Wong, Chun Han. "Beijing Resumes Formal Ties With Gambia, in Signal to Taipei". wsj.com. Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
59. ^ correspondent, Owen Bowcott Legal affairs (11 November 2019). "Gambia files Rohingya genocide case against Myanmar at UN court". Retrieved 7 April 2020 – via www.theguardian.com.
60. ^ "UK regrets The Gambia's withdrawal from Commonwealth". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
61. ^ "WHO | Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices". Who.int. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
62. ^ "The Gambia passes bill imposing life sentences for some homosexual acts". The Guardian. Associated Press. 8 September 2014. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
63. ^ a b "Gambia must account for missing journalist Ebrima Manneh". Committee to Protect Journalists. 14 April 2009. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
64. ^ "Ebrima Manneh". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
65. ^ "Gambia: Missing editor died in detention in 2008 after mistreatment | Reporters without borders". RSF. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
66. ^ Ceesay, Fabakary B. (19 March 2019). "Journalist Manneh Died On Road To Diabugu Hospital". The Trumpet. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
67. ^ "Member States". OIC. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
68. ^ "Member States". African Union. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
69. ^ Bellamy, Alex J. and Williams, Paul D. (2013) Providing Peacekeepers: The Politics, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions. Oxford University Press, p. 30. ISBN 0199672822.
70. ^ NYU Center on International Cooperation (28 February 2012) "Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2012"
71. ^ "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017.
72. ^ Law, Gwillim (19 April 2006). "Divisions of Gambia". Administrative Divisions of Countries ("Statoids"). Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2006.
73. ^ Fadera, Hatab (23 April 2012) "Gambia to commence rail system in 2013:- Discloses President Jammeh, as he opens parliament", The Daily Observer (23 April 2012).
74. ^ "Prime Bank (Gambia) is the 12th commercial bank in the Gambia". Observer.gm. 27 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
75. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
76. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
77. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". Human Development Report. 31 December 2010. doi:10.18356/e5a0500a-en. ISSN 2412-3129.
78. ^ "TOTAL FERTILITY RATE". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
79. "The Gambia". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
80. ^ Admini. "Islamic Online University Signs Agreement with FBC". ayvnewspaper.com. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
81. ^ a b c "The Gambia: Demographic and Health Survey, 2013" (PDF). Gambia Bureau of Statistics. p. 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
82. ^ "CHAPTER IV – PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS". Constitution of the Republic of The Gambia. 1997. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
83. ^ a b c d "Gambia, The". International Religious Freedom Report 2007. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
84. ^ Breach of Faith. Human Rights Watch. June 2005. p. 8. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
85. ^ Burke, Andrew and Else, David (2002) The Gambia & Senegal. Lonely Planet. p. 35. ISBN 1740591372.
86. ^ Sait, Siraj and Lim, Hilary (2011) Land, Law and Islam Archived 13 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Zed Books. p. 42. ISBN 1842778137.
87. ^ "Shia Presence in Gambia". Wow.gm. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
88. ^ Kalis, Simone (1997). Medecine Traditionnele Religion et Divination Chez Les Seereer Siin Du Senegal. L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-7384-5196-9
89. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye (1972). "Chronique du royaume du Sine, suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin (1972)". Bulletin de l'IFAN. 34B (4): 706–7, 713–14.
90. ^ "The Gambia - Government and society". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
91. ^ "Roots revival: how does the new Kunta Kinte compare to the classic?". the Guardian. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
92. ^ "FolkWorld #71: Africa". www.folkworld.eu. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
93. ^ "Traditional food and drink in The Gambia". www.gambia.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
94. ^ a b "Country profile: The Gambia". BBC News website. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
95. ^ "President tightens media laws in The Gambia". Mail & Guardian. 11 May 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
96. ^ "Banjul newspaper reporter freed on bail pending trial". Reporters without borders. 13 June 2006. Archived from the original on 13 May 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
97. ^ "Gambia – Annual report 2005". Reporters Without Borders. December 2004. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
98. ^ "The Gambia | Countries | Collection of Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum". collection.cooperhewitt.org. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
99. ^ Sport – Gambia! Archived 23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, weebly.com, accessed 3 April 2016.