万维百科

美国人本文重定向自 美國人

美国人
Flag of the United States.svg
总人口
3.314亿
(2020年美国人口普查)
American people around the world.svg
分布地区
墨西哥738,100–1,000,000
加拿大316,350–1,000,000
印度2,694–700,000
菲律宾220,000–600,000
巴西260,000
法国200,000
以色列200,000
英国197,143(仅包含不在英国出生的)
韩国120,000–158,000
哥斯达黎加120,000–130,000
德国111,529(仅包含美国公民)
中国110,000
哥伦比亚60,000
香港60,000
日本59,172-153,389
澳大利亚56,276
巴基斯坦52,486
意大利50,000
阿联酋50,000
海地45,000
沙特阿拉伯40,000
阿根廷37,000
挪威33,509
巴哈马30,000
俄罗斯30,000[来源请求]
黎巴嫩25,000
巴拿马25,000
多米尼加24,457
西班牙22,082
智利19,161
萨尔瓦多19,000
新西兰21,462
语言
主要是美国英语,此外还有西班牙语和其他语言
宗教信仰
主要是基督教新教天主教,和其他基督教派系
犹太教其他宗教
无宗教

美国人指的是美国公民侨民美国永久居民也可合法申请美国国籍。美国是许多民族的家园。因此,美国的文化法律英语United States nationality law并不把国籍等同于种族民族,而是将其视作一种公民身份,也象征着对国家的效忠。

概览

大部分美国人并非原住民,而是移民和移民的后代。随着美国领地的不断扩张,夏威夷波多黎各关岛美属萨摩亚美属维尔京群岛以及北马里亚纳群岛的住民也陆续成为美国人。

美国的主流文化主要源自西欧北欧,但也受到了非裔美国人的影响。随着西进运动的进行,路易斯安那的卡县人克里奥尔人英语Louisiana Creole people、西南部的拉丁裔以及墨西哥人的文化也对美国文化产生了影响。19世纪末至20世纪初,来自南欧东欧亚洲非洲拉丁美洲的移民也影响了美国文化。在美国,各种文化一方面保持着自身的特征,一方面又相互融合,因此美国常被称为文化大熔炉或文化沙拉盘英语Salad bowl (cultural idea)

美国人及其后裔广泛分布于世界各地。据估计,有多达700万美国人生活在国外。

种族和民族

2010年美国调查局表1
自我认定种族 占人口百分比
白人
  
72.4%
黑人
  
12.6%
亚裔
  
4.8%
大陆原住民
  
0.9%
太平洋岛原住民英语Pacific Islands Americans
  
0.2%
混血美国人英语Multiracial Americans
  
2.9%
其他种族
  
6.2%
总计
  
100.0%
拉丁裔:16.3%

美国是一个多元文化主义国家。美国普查局因统计需要将美国人划分为六个种族:白人、美国印第安人和阿拉斯加原住民、亚洲人、黑人或非洲裔美国人、夏威夷原住民和其他太平洋岛原住民,以及两个或两个以上种族的人。此外也可以选择“其他种族”。普查局还将美国人分为拉丁裔和非拉丁裔,而拉丁裔是美国最大的少数族裔。

美国白人

根据2010年美国人口普查,3.08亿美国人中有72.4%是白人。其祖先是欧洲、中东和北非的原住民。另有2.4%是白人与其他种族的混血儿,其中白人与黑人的混血儿最多。拉丁裔白人占美国人口的9.4%,在加利福尼亚得克萨斯新墨西哥内华达夏威夷占多数。非拉丁裔白人英语Non-Hispanic or Latino whites比例最高的州是缅因州。此外,非白人在哥伦比亚特区和五个有常住人口的海外领土占多数。

最早在美国大陆建立殖民据点的欧洲人是西班牙人,这段历史可以追溯到1565年。马丁·德·阿圭利兹英语Martín de Argüelles是第一个生于美洲大陆的欧洲裔,他生于1566年新西班牙总督辖区圣奥古斯丁。此外,西班牙人还于1521年在波多黎各建立了圣胡安市弗吉尼亚·戴尔是第一个生于北美十三州的英格兰裔,她生于1587年的罗阿诺德克殖民地

根据2017年美国社区调查英语American Community Survey德裔爱尔兰裔英格兰裔意大利裔是美国的四大欧裔群体,占总人口的35.1%。然而,英格兰裔和英国裔的人口被认为遭到严重低估。因为他们在美国居住的时间很长,一般只会说自己是美国人英语American ancestry,而不会强调自己的祖先来自哪里。这一现像在上南方尤其明显,该地区长期以英国裔为主。

在美国所有种族中,欧裔美国人的贫困率最低,受教育程度家庭所得英语Household income in the United States中位数和个人所得英语Personal income in the United States中位数位居第二。

欧裔在美国的分布(以县为单位)
美国白人的各族群人口
排名 族群 占美国人口百分比 估计人口 数据来源
1 德裔 13.2% 43,093,766
2 爱尔兰裔 9.7% 31,479,232
3 英格兰裔 7.1% 23,074,947
4 美国人英语American ancestry 6.1% 20,024,830
5 墨西哥裔 5.4% 16,794,111
6 意大利裔 5.1% 16,650,674
7 波兰裔 2.8% 9,012,085
8 法裔 (不包含巴斯克裔英语Basque Americans
法裔加拿大美国人英语French Canadian Americans
2.4%
0.6%
7,673,619
2,110,014
9 苏格兰裔 1.7% 5,399,371
10 挪威裔 1.3% 4,295,981
11 荷兰裔 1.2% 3,906,193
总计 美国白人 59.34% 231,040,398
来源: 2010年美国人口普查和2017年美国社区调查

中东和北非裔

根据美国犹太人档案馆英语American Jewish Archives阿拉伯裔美国人国家博物馆英语Arab American National Museum的资料,第一批中东人和北非人(即犹太人柏柏尔人)在15世纪末至16世纪中期抵达美洲。许多人是为了躲避西班牙宗教裁判所的迫害,还有一些人成为了美洲殖民者的奴隶。阿拉伯裔美国人研究所英语Arab American Institute指出,22个阿盟成员国中,每个国家都有人移民美国。

自1909年以来,美国人口调查局一直将中东和北非人归为白人。随着时代的变迁,许多专家认为这个分类已经过时。2014年,在与中东和北非组织协商后,普查局宣布将为来自中东北非阿拉伯世界的人建立一个新的族群类别,称为MENA。2018年1月,普查局宣布,2020年美国人口普查将不会单独统计中东和北非人。

中东裔美国人数量
族群 2000 2000(占美国人口比例) 2010 2010(占美国人口比例)
阿拉伯裔 1,160,729 0.4125% 1,697,570 0.5498%
亚美尼亚裔 385,488 0.1370% 474,559 0.1537%
伊朗裔 338,266 0.1202% 463,552 0.1501%
犹太人 6,155,000 2.1810% 6,543,820 2.1157%
其他 529,289 0.185718% 801,831 0.257771%
总计 8,568,772 3.036418% 9,981,332 3.227071%

来源:2000-2010年美国人口普查曼德尔·博曼研究所和博曼犹太人数据库英语Berman Jewish DataBank

多种族美国人

随着时代变迁,美国的多种族运动也逐渐壮大。2008年,多种族美国人有700万,占总人口的2.3%;而根据2010年的普查,这一数字增长到了9,009,073,占总人口的2.9%。其中黑白混血儿最为常见,共有1,834,212名,第44任美国总统贝拉克·奥巴马就是其中一例。他的母亲是白人(有英格兰和爱尔兰血统),而父亲则是生于肯尼亚卢欧族(但自我认同为非裔美国人)。

多种族美国人数量
排名 种族 占总人口百分比 人口
1 白人与黑人 0.59 1,834,212
2 其他 0.58 1,794,402
3 白人与其他种族 0.56 1,740,924
4 白人与亚裔 0.52 1,623,234
5 白人与原住民 0.46 1,432,309
6 黑人与其他种族 0.1 314,571
7 黑人与原住民 0.08 269,421
总计英语Multiracial Americans 2.9 9,009,073
2010年美国人口普查

其他种族

根据2010年美国人口普查,其他种族是美国的第三大族群,有6.2%的(19,107,368名)美国人属于此类别。36.7%的(18,503,103名)拉丁裔是其他种族,其中有不少是麦士蒂索人,此比例在墨西哥和中美洲社区中尤其高。但美国人口普查不统计麦士蒂索人。

国家化身

左图是美国的国家化身山姆大叔,其形象与塞缪尔·威尔逊很相似。右图则是美国的女性化身哥伦比亚,在18至19世纪十分流行。

山姆大叔是美国的国家化身,有时也特指美国政府。该词第一次使用是在1812年战争期间。他的形象通常是一位严厉的白人老人,头发花白,留着山羊胡英语Goatee,其衣着通常含有美国国旗的元素。

哥伦比亚是美国的女性化身。该词起初用来指代美洲,后因非裔美国诗人菲利斯·惠特利英语Phillis Wheatley美国独立战争期间的使用而广为人知。其后,包括西半球在内的许多地区都将哥伦比亚用作人物、地点、物体、机构和公司的名字。美国政府所在地哥伦比亚特区就是其中一个例子。

语言

2010年美国人在家使用语言状况
语言 人口百分比 使用者数量
英语 80.38% 233,780,338
西班牙语
(不包括波多黎各克里奥尔语英语Spanish-based creole language
12.19% 35,437,985
汉语
(包括现代标准汉语粤语
0.88% 2,567,779
他加禄语 0.53% 1,542,118
越南语 0.44% 1,292,448
法语 0.44% 1,288,833
韩语 0.38% 1,108,408
德语 0.38% 1,107,869
印度斯坦语
(包括印地语乌尔都语
0.32% 942,794
其他语言 4.04% 11,760,383

美国英语是美国事实上的国家语言。虽然联邦政府没有规定官方语言,但英语至少在28个州取得了官方语言的地位。也因此,一些美国人主张将英语作为美国的官方语言。美国对入籍申请者的英语能力亦有要求。2007年,约有2.26亿美国人(占5岁及以上人口的80%)在家只说英语。西班牙语是美国的第二大语言,约有12%的人在家说西班牙语。西班牙语也是波多黎各的官方语言。此外,新墨西哥州政府也使用西班牙语,而路易斯安那州政府亦使用法语,但两州均未规定官方语言。加利福尼亚等州则要求某些政府文件(如法庭表格)必须有西班牙文版。另外,根据夏威夷州法律,英语和夏威夷语都是其官方语言。一些美国非合并属地对原住民语言也给予了官方认可。美属萨摩亚关岛分别承认萨摩亚语查莫罗语,而北马里亚纳群岛则承认加罗林语和查莫罗语。

宗教

2014年美国各宗教人口占比
宗教 教徒占美国人口比例(%)
基督教 70.6 70.6
 
新教 46.5 46.5
 
福音主义 25.4 25.4
 
主流新教 14.7 14.7
 
黑人教会英语Black church 6.5 6.5
 
天主教 20.8 20.8
 
耶稣基督后期圣徒教会 1.6 1.6
 
耶和华见证人 0.8 0.8
 
东正教 0.5 0.5
 
其他基督教 0.4 0.4
 
非基督教信仰 5.9 5.9
 
犹太教 1.9 1.9
 
伊斯兰教 0.9 0.9
 
佛教 0.7 0.7
 
印度教 0.7 0.7
 
其他非基督教 1.8 1.8
 
无宗教 22.8 22.8
 
无特定宗教 15.8 15.8
 
不可知论 4.0 4
 
无神论 3.1 3.1
 
不知道或拒绝回答 0.6 0.6
 
总计 100 100
 

美国是世界上宗教最多元化的国家,不论是本土信仰还是外来信仰都能在美国蓬勃发展。大多数美国人表示,宗教在他们的生活中扮演着“非常重要”的角色,这在发达国家中并不常见,但在美洲国家中却十分普遍。美国是第一个禁止设立国教的国家,其宪法第一修正案禁止联邦政府制定任何法律来确立国教或禁止信教自由。该法条是少数宗教团体和各州人民争取的结果,也受到了新教和理性主义的影响。美国最高法院解释道,该法条的设立是为了防止政府以公权力干涉宗教。此外,美国宪法第六条第三款规定:合众国政府之任何职位或公职,不得以任何宗教标准作为任职的必要条件。该法条以弗吉尼亚宗教自由法令英语Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom为范本。

美国拥有世界上最多的基督徒。76%的美国人信仰基督教,其中大多信仰新教天主教,他们分别占美国人口的48%和23%。其他宗教包括佛教印度教伊斯兰教犹太教,这些教徒占成年人口的4%至5%。另有15%的成年人自认为没有宗教信仰。根据美国宗教认同调查英语American Religious Identification Survey,全美各地的宗教信仰差异很大:美国西部(无教堂带)有59%的美国人信,而南部(圣经带)则有86%。

此外,北美十三州中也有部分是由基督徒建立的,他们为了能够自由的信仰自己的宗教而来到北美。其中,马萨诸塞湾殖民地由英国清教徒建立,宾夕法尼亚省由英国和爱尔兰的贵格会教徒建立,马里兰省由英国和爱尔兰的天主教徒建立,弗吉尼亚殖民地及自治领由英国圣公宗教徒建立。

文化

苹果派棒球是美国文化的象征

美国地域宽广,人口众多,文化多样性高。保守主义自由主义,科学与宗教在这里碰撞融合。美国人普遍崇尚个人主义,相信自由、平等民主的价值,对言论自由与国家的政治制度十分重视。此外,美国人也比较喜欢冒险。

美国文化主要被西方文化所影响,但也受到了原住民西非东亚波利尼西亚拉丁美洲文化的影响。殖民时期英语Colonial history of the United States对美国影响最大的是英国。通过殖民,英国向美洲大陆传播了他们的语言法律其他文化。此外,以德国法国意大利为代表的其他一些欧洲国家也对美国文化产生了重要影响。

美国的本土文化也有着强大的影响力。美国的本土节日体育运动军事传统英语Military tradition以及艺术和娱乐方面的创新带给国民强烈的民族自豪感。美国在许多方面都有自己独特的社会和文化特征,如方言音乐艺术英语Visual art of the United States社会习惯饮食美国民俗英语Folklore of the United States

对外移民

美国侨民的分布(包括美国公民及其子女)
  美国
  + 1,000,000
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

许多国家或地区都有来自美国的移民,包括阿根廷、澳大利亚英语American Australians、巴西、加拿大英语American Canadians、智利、中国哥斯达黎加、法国、德国、香港英语Americans in Hong Kong、印度、日本、墨西哥、新西兰、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、阿联酋和英国。截至2016年 (2016-Missing required parameter 1=month!),约有900万美国公民生活在海外。

参见

注释

  1. ^ 拉丁裔并非种族,仅指自身或祖先来自拉丁美洲的人。
  2. ^ 2010年,出生于欧洲的美国裔(481.7万)中有61.8%完成了归化。
  3. ^ 自1990年起,美国人口普查的族群认同一栏中增加了“美国人”这一选项。
  4. ^ 即Middle Easterners and North Africans(中东和北非人)的缩写
  5. ^ 即所有自认为不属于其他任何种族的人
  6. ^ 指美洲原住民与欧洲人所生的混血儿

参考文献

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    New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to 'strengthen' ties. CNN Philippines (Metro Manila). 2016-12-02 [2017-03-20]. According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines.
    Lozada, Aaron. New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH 'most important'. ABS-CBN News (Manila). 2016-12-02 [2017-03-20]. According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines is evident in the "four million Filipino-Americans who are residing in the United States and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines."
    International Business Publications, USA. Philippines Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications. 2013-08-01: 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9. An estimated 600,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country.
    Kapoor, Kanupriya; Dela Cruz, Enrico. Americans in Philippines jittery as Duterte rails against United States. Reuters (Olongapo). 2016-10-17 [2018-04-20]. About four million people of Philippine ancestry live in the United States, one of its largest minorities, and about 220,000 Americans, many of them military veterans, live in the Philippines. An additional 650,000 visit each year, according to U.S. State Department figures.
    FACT SHEET: United States-Philippines Bilateral Relations. U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. United States Department of State. 2014-04-28 [2018-04-20]. Around 350,000 Americans reside in the Philippines, and approximately 600,000 U.S. citizens visit the country each year.
  8. ^ Cooper, Matthew. Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony. National Journal. 2013-11-15 [2015-01-28]. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.
  9. ^ US Embassy in Brazil US Embassy in Brazil. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  10. ^ Americans in France. Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of State. [2015-04-26]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-18). Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 150,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates.
  11. ^ Daphna Berman. Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!. Haaretz. 2008-01-23 [2012-12-11]. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories.
  12. ^ Michele Chabin. In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship. USA Today (Jerusalem). 2012-03-19 [2012-12-11]. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free.
  13. ^ Simon Rogers. The UK's foreign-born population: see where people live and where they're from. The Guardian. 2011-05-26 [2013-02-17]. County of birth and county of nationality. United States of America 197 143
  14. ^ U.S. Citizen Services. Embassy of the United States Seoul, Korea. United States Department of State. [2012-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-30). This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea.
    North Korea propaganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking. Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. 2013-03-22 [2013-03-23]. According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops.
  15. ^ Background Note: Costa Rica. Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. United States Department of State. 2012-04-09 [2012-12-11]. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually.
    Bloom, Laura Begley. More Americans are fleeing to cheap faraway places. New York Post. 2018-07-31 [2020-02-19]. Approximately 120,000 citizens live in this stable country, many as retirees, according to the State Department.
  16. ^ publisher. Pressemitteilungen - Ausländische Bevölkerung - Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis). www.destatis.de.
  17. ^ Calum Macleod. A guide to success in China, by Americans who live there. 2005-11-18 [2020-05-24].
  18. ^ Colombia (03/28/13). United States Department of State. [2014-02-27]. (原始内容存档于2013-04-20). Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year.
  19. ^ Hong Kong (10/11/11). Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note. United States Department of State. 2011-10-11 [2012-12-11]. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong.
  20. ^ 令和元年末現在における在留外国人数について (Excel). Immigration Services Agency of Japan. [2021-04-08].
  21. ^ 在日米軍の施設・区域内外居住(人数・基準) (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2008-02-22 [2021-04-08].
  22. ^ ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia. [2014-10-19].
  23. ^ Gishkori, Zahid. Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar. The Express Tribune. 2015-07-30 [2017-08-03]. 52,486 Americans... are residing in [Pakistan], the interior minister added.
  24. ^ Kelly Carter. High cost of living crush Americans' dreams of Italian living. USA Today (Positano, Italy). 2005-05-17 [2012-12-17]. Nearly 50,000 Americans lived in Italy at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office.
  25. ^ UAE´s population – by nationality. BQ Magazine. 2015-04-12 [2015-06-13]. (原始内容存档于2015-07-11).
  26. ^ McKinley Jr.; James C. For 45,000 Americans in Haiti, the Quake Was 'a Nightmare That's Not Ending'. The New York Times. 2010-01-17 [2015-02-27].
  27. ^ SAUDI-U.S. TRADE. Commerce Office. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. [2012-02-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-13). Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans living and working in the Kingdom.
  28. ^ Argentina (03/12/12). Previous Editions of Argentina Background Note. United States Department of State. 2012-03-12 [2012-12-24]. The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year.
  29. ^ Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010. [2014-10-19].
  30. ^ Bahamas, The (01/25/12). Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. 2012-01-25 [2012-12-29]. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents.
  31. ^ Kate King. U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon. CNN. 2006-07-18 [2012-02-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-06). About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters.
  32. ^ Panama (03/09). Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. March 2009 [2012-12-17]. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality.
  33. ^ IX Censo Nacional de Poblacion y Vivenda 2010 (PDF): 101. [2015-07-23]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-09-27).
  34. ^ Foreign population by sex, country of nationality and age (up to 85 and above).. Instituto Natcional de Estadistica. 2007-01-01 [2018-05-28] (西班牙语). Both genders 22,082
  35. ^ S. Vedoya; V. Rivera. Gobierno cifra en más de un millón el número de inmigrantes que están en Chile. Latercera. 2018-04-04 [2018-04-20] (西班牙语).
  36. ^ El Salvador (01/10). United States Department of State. [2014-04-11]. (原始内容存档于2014-04-13). More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador
  37. ^ North Americans: Facts and figures. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  38. ^ Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston. U.S. Religious Landscape Survey (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. February 2008 [2012-02-12].
  39. ^ 美国法典第8卷英语Title 8 of the United States Code第1401章; 美国法典第8卷英语Title 8 of the United States Code第1408章; 美国法典第8卷英语Title 8 of the United States Code第1452章; see also
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1
  41. ^
  42. ^ See
    • Template:USCFR(c)(3)(vi) (about filing a "motion to reopen" removal proceedings with the Board of Immigration Appeals "based on specific allegations, supported by evidence, that the respondent is a United States citizen or national");
    • Template:USCFR ("U.S. non-citizen national means a person on whom U.S. nationality, but not U.S. citizenship, has been conferred at birth under 8 U.S.C. 1408, or under other law or treaty, and who has not subsequently lost such non-citizen nationality.").
  43. ^ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip. Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. 1982: 62 [2013-02-01]. ISBN 9780674157262. ...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.
  44. ^ Foreign nationals. Federal Election Commission. 2017-06-23 [2021-02-18].
  45. ^
    • Fernandez v. Keisler, 502 F.3d 337. Fourth Circuit: 341. 2007-09-26. The INA defines 'national of the United States' as '(A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States.'
    • Robertson-Dewar v. Mukasey, 599 F. Supp. 2d 772. U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas: 779 n.3. 2009-02-25. The [INA] defines naturalization as 'conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever.'
  46. ^ Permanent Allegiance Law and Legal Definition. definitions.uslegal.com.
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    Shklar, Judith N. American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. 1991: 3–4 [2012-12-17]. ISBN 9780674022164.
    Slotkin, Richard. Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality. American Literary History (Oxford University Press). 2001, 13 (3): 469–498 [2012-12-17]. S2CID 143996198. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging.
    Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard. European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press. 2001: 25–26 [2013-02-01]. ISBN 9780199241200. In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior.
    Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip. Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. 1982: 62 [2013-02-01]. ISBN 9780674157262. To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.
    Charles Hirschman; Philip Kasinitz; Josh Dewind. The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation. 1999-11-04: 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3. 已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
    David Halle. America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press. 1987-07-15: 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5. The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government.
  48. ^ Lifshey, Adam. Subversions of the American Century: Filipino Literature in Spanish and the Transpacific Transformation of the United States. University of Michigan Press. 2015: 119. ISBN 978-0-472-05293-6. the status of Filipinos in the Philippines as American nationals existed from 1900 to 1946
    Rick Baldoz. The Third Asiatic Invasion: Empire and Migration in Filipino America, 1898-1946. NYU Press. 2011-02-28: 174. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Recalling earlier debates surrounding Filipinos' naturalization status in the United States, he pointed out that U.S. courts had definitively recognized that Filipinos were American "nationals" and not "aliens."
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