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自由意志社会主义本文重定向自 自由意志社會主義

(重定向自左派自由意志主義)

自由意志社会主义(英语: Libertarian Socialism),是社会主义运动之内的一系列反独裁政治学说,其反对中央集权国有理念和计划经济。自由意志社会主义的理念跟左翼自由意志主义相近或重叠,且其会批判雇主聘用制,提倡工人自治政治组织的去中心化

自由意志社会主义者通常会反对国家这一政治实体本身,他们宣称可透过废除控制一定生产手段,并使大多数人受到特权阶级支配的权威主义制度,来建立一个建基于正义自由之上的社会。支持者提倡采用直接民主制工会、工人委员会、基层政权、公民议会等联邦制手段,来达至政治去中心化的效果。其背后目的在于建立自由联合体、保障人们的自由、舍弃影响人们生活种种方面的非法权威。这些特点使得自由意志社会主义能够跟列宁主义布尔什维主义社会民主主义区分开来。

被称为自由意志社会主义的政治哲学包括(但不必然是)多种形式的无政府主义(包括无政府共产主义、集体无政府主义、无政府工团主义、互助主义、社会生态学、自治主义和议会共产主义)。有些作者将自由意志社会主义作为无政府主义的同义词,特别是社会无政府主义

概要

诺姆·乔姆斯基,一位知名的自由意志社会主义者

自由意志社会主义是一种有着各式阐述的意识型态,但其中可找出一些互通的共性。其拥护者支持以工人为导向的分配制度,完全背离了资本主义经济(社会主义)。他们建议在一定程度上实行这个经济制度,试图达到个人自由的最大化,以及权力或管理集中的最小化(自由意志主义)。自由意志社会主义者强烈批判强制性制度,常导致他们反对国家的合法性,转而支持无政府主义。其拥护者试图以政治和经济分权的方式达成目标,通常会涉及到大型财产和企业的社会化。自由意志社会主义否定多数形式的私有财产合法性,因为他们将资本主义财产关系视为一种统治的形式,是与个人自由对立的。

第一位自称自由意志主义者的是早期的法国无政府共产主义者约瑟夫·迪亚契。该字来自于法文单字“libertaire”,用来规避法国对无政府主义刊物的禁止。在欧洲社会主义运动中,“自由意志主义”常被用来描述反对国家社会主义的人士,如米哈依尔·巴枯宁。在美国,最常称为自由意志主义的运动是信奉资本主义哲学。因此,“自由意志社会主义”这个名称造成了美国人的矛盾。然而,自由意志主义结合社会主义早于结合资本主义,而且许多反权威主义者依然谴责美国的自由意志主义结合资本主义是错误的。如同诺姆·乔姆斯基所说,一名始终如一的自由主义者“必须反对生产手段的私人所有权和这个制度中的工资奴隶(英语: Wage slavery),工资奴隶的存在不相容于劳动必须由生产者自由承担和控制的原则。”

激进经济学家罗宾·汉内尔(英语: Robin Hahnel)讲述了从自由意志社会主义拥有最大影响力的十九世纪末开始,一直到二十世纪的前四分之一这段时期的历史:

“二十世纪初,自由意志社会主义与社会民主主义和共产主义同样是一股强大的势力。无政府主义国际–成立于马克思主义者与自由意志主义者决裂的社会国际1872年海牙大会后数天–成功的与社会民主主义、共产主义一同竞争反资本主义行动者、革命者、工人、工会和政党的忠诚,长达五十年。自由意志社会主义者在俄国1905年革命1917年俄国革命中扮演重要的角色。自由意志社会主义者在1911年墨西哥革命中扮演支配性的角色。一战结束后二十年,自由意志社会主义者依然有足够实力在1936年和1937年席卷西班牙共和国的社会革命中扮演先锋。”

反资本主义

自由意志社会主义者主张,每当权力行使时,如一个人在经济、社会或生理上对另一人的支配,提供证据之责任是在权力主义者身上,当他反对他限制了人类自由的范围时,会去证明他的行动是合法的。合法执行权利的典型实例有以有形力拯救即将被迎面而来的车辆撞上的人,或是自我防卫。自由意志社会主义者反对死板与分层的权力,无论是政治权力、经济权力或社会权力

自由意志社会主义者相信,所有社会联系应由拥有同等协商能力的个体去发展,经济权力累积在少数人手中与政治力量的集中化会减少社会中其他人的协商能力与自由。换句话说,资本主义右翼自由意志主义的原则是集中经济权力在拥有最多资产的人们手上。自由意志社会主义则试图分配权力,让社会中的成员更为平等。自由意志社会主义和自由市场自由意志主义之间最关键的差异是,前者的支持者认为一个人的自由度是受到他的经济和社会地位所影响,而后者的支持者则注重选择的自由。这有时被描述为他们追求社会中“自由创造力”(英语: Free creativity)的最大化,优于追求“自由企业”(英语: Free enterprise)。

自由意志社会主义者认为,如果自由是重要的,那么社会必须努力完成一个“个体拥有决定经济议题和政治议题之权力”的制度。自由意志社会主义者试图以直接民主制、自发性联合会和大众自治取代生活中各方面不合理的权力,包括实质社区和经济企业

许多自由意志社会主义者主张,应该由大规模的自发性公会管理工业生产,而工人则保有个人劳动产品的权力。因此,我们可以看出“私有财产”(英语: Private property)与“个人财物”(英语: Personal possession)两个概念之间的差别。“私有财产”授予个人对一件物品的单独控制权,无论是否有在使用,也不考虑生产能力;而“个人财物”并不授予个人对一件不使用的物品权力。

注释

  1. ^ "It implies a classless and anti-authoritarian (i.e. libertarian) society in which people manage their own affairs" I.1 Isn't libertarian socialism an oxymoron?页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) at An Anarchist FAQ
  2. ^ "unlike other socialists, they tend to see (to various different degrees, depending on the thinker) to be skeptical of centralized state intervention as the solution to capitalist exploitation..." Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. p. 305
  3. ^ Bookchin, Murray and Janet Biehl. The Murray Bookchin Reader. Cassell, 1997. p. 170 ISBN 0-304-33873-7
  4. ^ Hicks, Steven V. and Daniel E. Shannon. The American journal of economics and sociolology. Blackwell Pub, 2003. p. 612
  5. ^ "Therefore, rather than being an oxymoron, "libertarian socialism" indicates that true socialism must be libertarian and that a libertarian who is not a socialist is a phoney. As true socialists oppose wage labour, they must also oppose the state for the same reasons. Similarly, libertarians must oppose wage labour for the same reasons they must oppose the state." "I1. Isn't libertarian socialism an oxymoron" in页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) An Anarchist FAQ
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 "So, libertarian socialism rejects the idea of state ownership and control of the economy, along with the state as such. Through workers' self-management it proposes to bring an end to authority, exploitation, and hierarchy in production." "I1. Isn't libertarian socialism an oxymoron" in页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) An Anarchist FAQ
  7. ^ "Their analysis treats libertarian socialism as a form of anti-parliamentary, democratic, antibureaucratic grass roots socialist organisation, strongly linked to working class activism." Alex Prichard, Ruth Kinna, Saku Pinta and Dave Berry (eds) Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red. Palgrave Macmillan, December 2012. p. 13
  8. ^ " ...preferringa system of popular self governance via networks of decentralized, local voluntary, participatory, cooperative associations. Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. p. 305
  9. ^ "What is of particular interest here, however, is the appeal to a form of emancipation grounded in decentralized, cooperative and democratic forms of political and economic governance which most libertarian socialist visions, including Cole's, tend to share." Charles Masquelier. Critical theory and libertarian socialism: Realizing the political potential of critical social theory. Bloombury. New York-London. 2014. p. 189
  10. ^ Mendes, Silva. ‘Socialismo Libertário ou Anarchismo’ Vol. 1(1896):“Society should be free through mankind's spontaneous federative affiliation to life, based on the community of land and tools of the trade; meaning: Anarchy will be equality by abolition of private property and liberty by abolition of authority”
  11. ^ "...preferring a system of popular self governance via networks of decentralized, local, voluntary, participatory, cooperative associations-sometimes as a complement to and check on state power..."
  12. ^ Rocker, Rudolf. Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. AK Press. 2004: 65. ISBN 978-1-902593-92-0.
  13. ^ "What is implied by the term 'libertarian socialism'?: The idea that socialism is first and foremost about freedom and therefore about overcoming the domination, repression, and alienation that block the free flow of human creativity, thought, and action...An approach to socialism that incorporates cultural revolution, women's and children's liberation, and the critique and transformation of daily life, as well as the more traditional concerns of socialist politics. A politics that is completely revolutionary because it seeks to transform all of reality. We do not think that capturing the economy and the state lead automatically to the transformation of the rest of social being, nor do we equate liberation with changing our life-styles and our heads. Capitalism is a total system that invades all areas of life: socialism must be the overcoming of capitalist reality in its entirety, or it is nothing." "What is Libertarian Socialism?" by Ulli Diemer. Volume 2, Number 1 (Summer 1997 issue) of The Red Menace.
  14. ^ "LibSoc share with LibCap an aversion to any interference to freedom of thought, expression or choicce of lifestyle." Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. p. 305
  15. ^ "...what categorizes libertarian socialism is a focus on forms of social organization to further the freedom of the individual combined with an advocacy of non-state means for achieving this." Matt Dawson. Late modernity, individualization and socialism: An Associational Critique of Neoliberalism. Palgrave MacMillan. 2013. p. 64
  16. ^ The Soviet Union Versus Socialism. chomsky.info. [2015-11-22]. Libertarian socialism, furthermore, does not limit its aims to democratic control by producers over production, but seeks to abolish all forms of domination and hierarchy in every aspect of social and personal life, an unending struggle, since progress in achieving a more just society will lead to new insight and understanding of forms of oppression that may be concealed in traditional practice and consciousness.
  17. ^ "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explred in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1
  18. ^ "The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual.""Principles of The International of Anarchist Federations 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期January 5, 2012,.]"]
  19. ^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays.
  20. ^ Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, – follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism...Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty.
  21. ^ Ward, Colin. Anarchism as a Theory of Organization. 1966 [1 March 2010]. (原始内容存档于25 March 2010).
  22. ^ Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (p. 9)...Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
  23. ^ Brown, L. Susan. Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism. The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. 2002: 106.
  24. ^ "It is forgotten that the early defenders of commercial society like [Adam] Smith were as much concerned with criticising the associational blocks to mobile labour represented by guilds as they were to the activities of the state. The history of socialist thought includes a long associational and anti-statist tradition prior to the political victory of the Bolshevism in the east and varieties of Fabianism in the west. John O'Neil." The Market: Ethics, knowledge and politics. Routledge. 1998. p. 3
  25. ^ "In some ways, it is perhaps fair to say that if Left communism is an intellectual- political formation, it is so, first and foremost, negatively – as opposed to other socialist traditions. I have labelled this negative pole 'socialist orthodoxy', composed of both Leninists and social democrats...What I suggested was that these Left communist thinkers differentiated their own understandings of communism from a strand of socialism that came to follow a largely electoral road in the West, pursuing a kind of social capitalism, and a path to socialism that predominated in the peripheral and semi- peripheral countries, which sought revolutionary conquest of power and led to something like state capitalism. Generally, the Left communist thinkers were to find these paths locked within the horizons of capitalism (the law of value, money, private property, class, the state), and they were to characterize these solutions as statist, substitutionist and authoritarian." Chamsy el- Ojeili. Beyond post-socialism. Dialogues with the far-left. Palgrave Macmillan. 2015. p. 8
  26. ^ Sims, Franwa. The Anacostia Diaries As It Is. Lulu Press. 2006: p.160.
  27. ^ A Mutualist FAQ: A.4. Are Mutualists Socialists? 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-06-09.
  28. ^ Bookchin, Murray. Post-Scarcity Anarchism AK Press (2004) p.xl
  29. ^ Chomsky, Noam. Chomsky on Democracy and Education Routledge (2002) p.133
  30. ^ Ross, Dr. Jeffery Ian. Controlling State Crime Transaction Publishers (200) p.400
  31. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Blackwell Publishing, 1991. p. 21.
  32. ^ Noam Chomsky, Carlos Peregrín Otero. Language and Politics. AK Press, 2004, p. 739
  33. ^ Brooks, Frank H. The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty Transaction Publishers (1994) p. 75
  34. ^ Spiegel, Henry. The Growth of Economic Thought Duke University Press (1991) p.446
  35. ^ Paul, Ellen Frankel et al. Problems of Market Liberalism Cambridge University Press (1998) p.305
  36. ^ Wikiquote, URL accessed on June 4, 2006
  37. ^ Bookchin, Murray. The Modern Crisis Black Rose Books (1987) p.154–55
  38. ^ Chomsky, Noam. Otero, Carlos. Radical Priorities AK Press (2003) p.26
  39. ^ Hahnel, Robin. Economic Justice and Democracy, Routledge Press, 138
  40. ^ Chomsky, Noam. 'Language and Politics' AK Press (2004) p.775
  41. ^ Ed, Andrew. 'Closing the Iron Cage: The Scientific Management of Work and Leisure' Black Rose Books (1999) p. 116
  42. ^ Brown, Susan. 'The Politics of Individualism' Black Rose Books (2003) p.117
  43. ^ Otero,C.P. in Chomsky, Noam. Radical Priorities, Black Rose Books,1981, 30-31)
  44. ^ Harrington, Austin, et al. 'Encyclopedia of Social Theory' Routledge (2006) p.50
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  46. ^ Ely, Richard et al. 'Property and Contract in Their Relations to the Distribution of Wealth' The Macmillan Company (1914)

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